Ser19
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Home > Phosphorylation Site Page: > Ser19  -  TH (rat)

Site Information
KGFRRAVsEQDAKQA   SwissProt Entrez-Gene
Blast this site against: NCBI  SwissProt  PDB 
Site Group ID: 448542

In vivo Characterization
Methods used to characterize site in vivo:
[32P] bio-synthetic labeling ( 20 , 21 , 22 ) , immunoprecipitation ( 17 , 19 ) , mass spectrometry ( 3 ) , microscopy-colocalization with upstream kinase ( 6 ) , mutation of modification site ( 12 ) , peptide sequencing ( 21 , 22 ) , phospho-antibody ( 2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 13 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ) , phosphoamino acid analysis ( 21 , 22 ) , phosphopeptide mapping ( 20 , 21 , 22 ) , western blotting ( 2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 9 , 15 , 18 , 19 )
Disease tissue studied:
adrenal cancer ( 5 , 15 , 18 , 22 ) , pheochromocytoma ( 5 , 15 , 18 , 22 ) , pituitary cancer ( 18 ) , prostate cancer ( 6 )
Relevant cell line - cell type - tissue:
'brain, caudate-putamen' ( 13 ) , 'brain, hypothalamus' ( 9 , 11 ) , 'brain, nucleus accumbens' ( 13 ) , 'brain, striatum' ( 4 , 16 , 18 ) , 'neuron, cortical'-brain ( 10 , 17 ) , 'neuron, mesencephalic' ( 7 ) , 'neuron, substantia nigra'-brain ( 10 ) , 293 (epithelial) ( 12 ) , A126-1B2 (chromaffin) ( 15 ) , adrenal gland ( 2 , 6 ) , AtT20 (pituitary cell) ( 18 , 19 ) , brain ( 2 ) , neuron-brain ( 6 ) , PC-12 (chromaffin) [TrkA (rat), transfection] ( 3 ) , PC-12 (chromaffin) ( 3 , 5 , 15 , 18 , 19 , 22 ) , PC3 (prostate cell) ( 6 )

Upstream Regulation
Regulatory protein:
GFRA1 (rat) ( 10 )
Kinases, in vitro:
CAMK1A (human) ( 23 ) , CAMK2A (rat) ( 14 )
Putative upstream phosphatases:
PPP2CB (rat) ( 6 )
Phosphatases, in vitro:
PPP2CB (rat) ( 6 )
Treatments:
A23187 ( 22 ) , angiotensin ( 11 ) , apomorphine ( 18 ) , APV ( 17 ) , Ba(2+) ( 20 ) , bradykinin ( 20 ) , butyrolactone ( 18 ) , cocaine ( 13 ) , colforsin ( 15 , 17 , 21 ) , depolarization ( 5 , 15 , 19 , 21 , 22 ) , DHPG ( 7 ) , EGF ( 22 ) , EGTA ( 22 ) , electrical_stimulation ( 21 ) , eticlopride ( 16 ) , GDNF ( 7 , 10 ) , genistein ( 20 ) , glutamic acid ( 7 ) , insulin ( 2 ) , nerve_damage ( 18 ) , nicotine ( 22 ) , NMDA ( 7 , 16 , 17 ) , NSD-1015 ( 18 ) , okadaic_acid ( 6 , 16 , 17 , 22 ) , PD98059 ( 15 ) , phorbol_ester ( 21 ) , PRL ( 9 ) , quinpirole ( 16 ) , veratridine ( 22 )

Downstream Regulation
Effects of modification on TH:
enzymatic activity, induced ( 11 , 17 , 19 ) , molecular association, regulation ( 12 ) , protein conformation ( 14 ) , protein stabilization ( 8 )
Induce interaction with:
14-3-3 theta (human) ( 12 )

References 

1

Ong LK, et al. (2021) Peripheral inflammation induces long-term changes in tyrosine hydroxylase activation in the substantia nigra. Neurochem Int 146, 105022
33746005   Curated Info

2

Senthilkumaran M, Johnson ME, Bobrovskaya L (2016) The Effects of Insulin-Induced Hypoglycaemia on Tyrosine Hydroxylase Phosphorylation in Rat Brain and Adrenal Gland. Neurochem Res 41, 1612-24
26935743   Curated Info

3

Biarc J, Chalkley RJ, Burlingame AL, Bradshaw RA (2012) The induction of serine/threonine protein phosphorylations by a PDGFR/TrkA chimera in stably transfected PC12 cells. Mol Cell Proteomics 11, 15-30
22027198   Curated Info

4

Salvatore MF, Davis RW, Arnold JC, Chotibut T (2012) Transient striatal GLT-1 blockade increases EAAC1 expression, glutamate reuptake, and decreases tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation at ser(19). Exp Neurol 234, 428-36
22285253   Curated Info

5

Coultrap SJ, et al. (2010) CaMKII autonomy is substrate-dependent and further stimulated by Ca2+/calmodulin. J Biol Chem 285, 17930-7
20353941   Curated Info

6

Saraf A, Virshup DM, Strack S (2007) Differential expression of the B'beta regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A modulates tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and catecholamine synthesis. J Biol Chem 282, 573-80
17085438   Curated Info

7

Kobori N, Moore AN, Dash PK (2006) GDNF abates serum deprivation-induced tyrosine hydroxylase Ser19 phosphorylation and activity. Brain Res 1086, 142-51
16626642   Curated Info

8

Royo M, Fitzpatrick PF, Daubner SC (2005) Mutation of regulatory serines of rat tyrosine hydroxylase to glutamate: effects on enzyme stability and activity. Arch Biochem Biophys 434, 266-74
15639226   Curated Info

9

Ma FY, Grattan DR, Goffin V, Bunn SJ (2005) Prolactin-regulated tyrosine hydroxylase activity and messenger ribonucleic acid expression in mediobasal hypothalamic cultures: the differential role of specific protein kinases. Endocrinology 146, 93-102
15388649   Curated Info

10

Salvatore MF, et al. (2004) Striatal GDNF administration increases tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in the rat striatum and substantia nigra. J Neurochem 90, 245-54
15198683   Curated Info

11

Ma FY, et al. (2004) Angiotensin II regulates tyrosine hydroxylase activity and mRNA expression in rat mediobasal hypothalamic cultures: the role of specific protein kinases. J Neurochem 90, 431-41
15228599   Curated Info

12

Sachs NA, Vaillancourt RR (2004) Cyclin-dependent kinase 11p110 and casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibit the interaction between tyrosine hydroxylase and 14-3-3. J Neurochem 88, 51-62
14675149   Curated Info

13

Jedynak JP, Ali SF, Haycock JW, Hope BT (2002) Acute administration of cocaine regulates the phosphorylation of serine-19, -31 and -40 in tyrosine hydroxylase. J Neurochem 82, 382-8
12124439   Curated Info

14

Bevilaqua LR, et al. (2001) Phosphorylation of Ser(19) alters the conformation of tyrosine hydroxylase to increase the rate of phosphorylation of Ser(40). J Biol Chem 276, 40411-6
11502746   Curated Info

15

Salvatore MF, Waymire JC, Haycock JW (2001) Depolarization-stimulated catecholamine biosynthesis: involvement of protein kinases and tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation sites in situ. J Neurochem 79, 349-60
11677263   Curated Info

16

Lindgren N, et al. (2001) Dopamine D(2) receptors regulate tyrosine hydroxylase activity and phosphorylation at Ser40 in rat striatum. Eur J Neurosci 13, 773-80
11207812   Curated Info

17

Lindgren N, et al. (2000) Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity and phosphorylation at Ser(19) and Ser(40) via activation of glutamate NMDA receptors in rat striatum. J Neurochem 74, 2470-7
10820208   Curated Info

18

Lew JY, et al. (1999) Increased site-specific phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase accompanies stimulation of enzymatic activity induced by cessation of dopamine neuronal activity. Mol Pharmacol 55, 202-9
9927609   Curated Info

19

Haycock JW, et al. (1998) Role of serine-19 phosphorylation in regulating tyrosine hydroxylase studied with site- and phosphospecific antibodies and site-directed mutagenesis. J Neurochem 71, 1670-5
9751201   Curated Info

20

Haycock JW, Ahn NG, Cobb MH, Krebs EG (1992) ERK1 and ERK2, two microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases, mediate the phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase at serine-31 in situ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89, 2365-9
1347949   Curated Info

21

Haycock JW, Haycock DA (1991) Tyrosine hydroxylase in rat brain dopaminergic nerve terminals. Multiple-site phosphorylation in vivo and in synaptosomes. J Biol Chem 266, 5650-7
1672315   Curated Info

22

Haycock JW (1990) Phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in situ at serine 8, 19, 31, and 40. J Biol Chem 265, 11682-91
1973163   Curated Info

23

Campbell DG, Hardie DG, Vulliet PR (1986) Identification of four phosphorylation sites in the N-terminal region of tyrosine hydroxylase. J Biol Chem 261, 10489-92
2874140   Curated Info