Ser9
Javascript is not enabled on this browser. This site will not work properly without Javascript.
PhosphoSitePlus Homepage PhosphoSitePlus® v6.5.7
Powered by Cell Signaling Technology
Home > Phosphorylation Site Page: > Ser9  -  GSK3B (rat)

Site Information
SGRPRTTsFAESCKP   SwissProt Entrez-Gene
Blast this site against: NCBI  SwissProt  PDB 
Site Group ID: 449111

In vivo Characterization
Methods used to characterize site in vivo:
[32P] bio-synthetic labeling ( 72 ) , immunoprecipitation ( 4 , 14 , 25 , 71 ) , mass spectrometry (in vitro) ( 4 ) , mutation of modification site ( 4 , 32 , 42 , 53 , 59 , 67 , 69 , 70 , 71 , 72 ) , phospho-antibody ( 1 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 9 , 10 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 25 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 45 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 70 , 71 ) , western blotting ( 1 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 9 , 10 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 25 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 45 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 55 , 57 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 69 , 70 , 71 )
Disease tissue studied:
Alzheimer's disease ( 17 ) , adrenal cancer ( 9 , 52 ) , pheochromocytoma ( 9 , 52 ) , liver cancer ( 42 ) , neuroblastoma ( 52 )
Relevant cell line - cell type - tissue:
'brain, cerebral cortex' ( 18 ) , 'brain, hippocampus' ( 1 , 9 , 10 , 15 , 25 ) , 'brain, striatum' ( 18 ) , 'muscle, skeletal' ( 4 , 6 , 16 , 28 , 33 , 35 , 45 , 48 , 56 , 62 , 66 ) , 'neuron, bipolar' ( 57 ) , 'neuron, cerebellar granule'-brain ( 5 , 51 , 53 ) , 'neuron, cortical'-brain ( 30 , 59 , 60 ) , 293 (epithelial) ( 53 , 72 ) , 293T (epithelial) ( 4 ) , 3T3 (fibroblast) ( 64 ) , 3T3-L1 (fibroblast) ( 19 , 42 ) , A7r5 ('muscle, smooth') ( 61 ) , AD293 (epithelial) ( 42 ) , BHK-21 (fibroblast) ( 65 ) , brain ( 17 ) , C2C12 (myoblast) ( 22 , 27 ) , CHO-K1 (fibroblast) ( 63 ) , fibroblast ( 43 ) , GLUTag ( 58 ) , H4IIe (hepatic) ( 42 ) , heart ( 36 , 55 ) , L6 (myoblast) ( 23 , 37 ) , liver ( 21 , 38 , 47 ) , mesangial ( 32 ) , muscle ( 41 ) , myocyte ( 49 ) , myocyte-heart ( 27 , 29 , 40 , 70 ) , neuron-'brain, cerebellum' ( 20 , 52 , 69 ) , neuron-'brain, cerebral cortex' ( 14 ) , neuron-'brain, hippocampus' ( 50 ) , PC-12 (chromaffin) ( 9 , 52 , 68 , 71 ) , RAEC (endothelial) ( 31 ) , Rat1 (fibroblast) ( 67 ) , retinal ganglion ( 54 ) , SH-SY5Y (neural crest) ( 52 , 71 ) , spinal cord ( 34 )

Upstream Regulation
Regulatory protein:
ADCY6 (mouse) ( 26 ) , FAK (rat) ( 37 ) , GSK3A (rat) ( 30 ) , GSK3B (rat) ( 30 ) , ITGB1 (rat) ( 29 )
Putative in vivo kinases:
Akt1 (rat) ( 53 ) , CAMK2B (rat) ( 14 ) , PKACA (rat) ( 58 , 65 , 69 )
Kinases, in vitro:
CAMK2B (human) ( 14 ) , GSK3B (rabbit) ( 72 ) , p70S6K (rat) ( 73 ) , PKACA (human) ( 69 ) , PKG1 (human) ( 44 )
Treatments:
2-deoxyglucose ( 61 ) , 5-thio-glucose ( 61 ) , 6-OHDA ( 52 ) , acadesine ( 22 , 33 ) , action_potential ( 5 ) , AG1478 ( 12 ) , Akt-I-1,2 ( 5 ) , Akt_inhibitor_X ( 5 ) , anti-TNFalpha ( 62 ) , API-2 ( 23 ) , APV ( 5 ) , BDNF ( 18 , 50 , 57 , 59 ) , BIO ( 34 ) , blood pressure ( 49 ) , BW373U86 ( 55 ) , cAMP_analog ( 58 , 69 ) , cGMP_analog ( 44 , 58 ) , CHIR99021 ( 42 ) , chronic stress ( 1 ) , CNQX ( 5 ) , colchicine ( 51 ) , colforsin ( 58 , 65 , 69 ) , CT98014 ( 28 ) , culturing_of_cells ( 30 ) , depolarization ( 14 ) , dexamethasone ( 45 ) , endothelin ( 70 ) , ethanol ( 38 ) , exercise ( 35 , 45 , 48 , 66 ) , fasting ( 16 , 41 ) , fibronectin ( 43 ) , fluoxetine ( 1 ) , folic acid ( 25 ) , GLP-2 ( 65 ) , glucose ( 11 , 61 ) , Go_6983 ( 67 ) , GSK-3_inhibitor_I ( 30 ) , GSK-3_inhibitor_VII ( 30 ) , H-89 ( 65 , 69 ) , H-CHO ( 39 ) , high-fat diet ( 15 ) , homocysteine ( 25 ) , hypoxia ( 19 , 31 , 61 , 68 ) , hypoxia/reoxygenation ( 40 ) , IGF-1 ( 7 , 14 , 32 , 69 ) , IGF-2 ( 10 ) , indirubin ( 22 ) , insulin ( 6 , 16 , 20 , 21 , 23 , 24 , 28 , 33 , 37 , 41 , 42 , 45 , 46 , 54 , 63 , 64 , 66 , 67 , 71 ) , irbesartan ( 21 ) , ischemia ( 15 ) , ischemia/reperfusion ( 55 ) , isoproterenol ( 26 , 29 ) , KCl ( 20 ) , kenpaullone ( 20 ) , KN-62 ( 14 ) , learning ( 10 ) , leptin ( 47 ) , lithium ( 20 , 24 , 27 , 30 , 51 , 63 , 71 ) , LY294002 ( 14 , 18 , 54 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 63 , 65 , 67 , 70 ) , morphine ( 34 , 55 ) , mPKI ( 69 ) , MRS1334 ( 36 ) , muscle atrophy ( 56 ) , muscle contraction ( 6 , 16 ) , neurotrophin-3 ( 50 ) , NGF ( 50 ) , okadaic_acid ( 17 ) , PCP ( 18 ) , PD98059 ( 14 , 18 , 59 , 69 ) , phenylephrine ( 7 , 46 , 67 ) , phorbol_ester ( 63 ) , piclidenoson ( 36 ) , PIK90 ( 23 ) , PKI ( 14 ) , pleiotrophin ( 27 ) , PP242 ( 23 ) , rapamycin ( 23 , 36 , 48 , 55 ) , reelin ( 60 ) , rosiglitazone ( 64 ) , SB216763 ( 34 ) , seliciclib ( 34 ) , sepsis ( 62 ) , serum ( 63 ) , serum_withdrawal ( 59 ) , sildenafil ( 49 ) , siRNA ( 37 ) , SL327 ( 59 ) , SP600125 ( 40 ) , STO-609 ( 14 ) , streptozotocin ( 15 ) , TeTx ( 57 ) , thapsigargin ( 52 ) , tungstate ( 39 ) , tunicamycin ( 52 ) , U0126 ( 14 , 46 ) , V-150 ( 40 ) , valproic_acid ( 20 ) , vitamin_B12 ( 25 ) , wortmannin ( 14 , 29 , 36 , 50 , 55 , 66 , 68 , 70 ) , wounding ( 12 )

Downstream Regulation
Effects of modification on GSK3B:
activity, inhibited ( 67 , 72 ) , enzymatic activity, inhibited ( 20 , 70 ) , molecular association, regulation ( 53 )
Effects of modification on biological processes:
apoptosis, altered ( 14 , 32 ) , apoptosis, inhibited ( 69 ) , cell growth, altered ( 70 ) , transcription, altered ( 70 )
Induce interaction with:
14-3-3 beta (rat) ( 53 )

Disease / Diagnostics Relevance
Relevant diseases:
diabetes mellitus ( 15 ) , type 2 diabetes ( 15 )

References 

1

Mitic M, Brkic Z, Lukic I, Adzic M (2017) Convergence of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and GR signaling in response to fluoxetine treatment in chronically stressed female and male rats. Behav Brain Res 333, 295-303
28729116   Curated Info

2

Kaneko YS, et al. (2015) Aripiprazole increases NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase-1 and heme oxygenase-1 in PC12 cells. J Neural Transm 122, 757-72
25504008   Curated Info

3

Zhang CE, et al. (2014) Hypoxia-induced tau phosphorylation and memory deficit in rats. Neurodegener Dis 14, 107-16
24993525   Curated Info

4

Liu Y, et al. (2013) Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve) is an AMPK target participating in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Biochem J 455, 195-206
23905686   Curated Info

5

Smillie KJ, Cousin MA (2012) Akt/PKB controls the activity-dependent bulk endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Traffic 13, 1004-11
22487004   Curated Info

6

Lin FC, et al. (2012) Effect of insulin and contraction on glycogen synthase phosphorylation and kinetic properties in epitrochlearis muscles from lean and obese Zucker rats. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 302, C1539-47
22403789   Curated Info

7

Bisping E, et al. (2012) Transcription factor GATA4 is activated but not required for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. J Biol Chem 287, 9827-34
22228770   Curated Info

8

Parrales A, López E, López-Colomé AM (2011) Thrombin activation of PI3K/PDK1/Akt signaling promotes cyclin D1 upregulation and RPE cell proliferation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1813, 1758-66
21736902   Curated Info

9

Lu Y, et al. (2011) Early growth response 1 (Egr-1) regulates phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau in mammalian brain. J Biol Chem 286, 20569-81
21489990   Curated Info

10

Chen DY, et al. (2011) A critical role for IGF-II in memory consolidation and enhancement. Nature 469, 491-7
21270887   Curated Info

11

Ku PM, et al. (2011) Molecular role of GATA binding protein 4 (GATA-4) in hyperglycemia-induced reduction of cardiac contractility. Cardiovasc Diabetol 10, 57
21702924   Curated Info

12

Karrasch T, Spaeth T, Allard B, Jobin C (2011) PI3K-dependent GSK3ß(Ser9)-phosphorylation is implicated in the intestinal epithelial cell wound-healing response. PLoS One 6, e26340
22039465   Curated Info

13

Li C, et al. (2011) Sensitization of glioma cells to tamoxifen-induced apoptosis by Pl3-kinase inhibitor through the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. PLoS One 6, e27053
22046442   Curated Info

14

Song B, et al. (2010) Inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3 by CaMKII couples depolarization to neuronal survival. J Biol Chem 285, 41122-34
20841359   Curated Info

15

Zhang T, et al. (2010) Diabetes synergistically exacerbates poststroke dementia and tau abnormality in brain. Neurochem Int 56, 955-61
20398714   Curated Info

16

Lai YC, Zarrinpashneh E, Jensen J (2010) Additive effect of contraction and insulin on glucose uptake and glycogen synthase in muscle with different glycogen contents. J Appl Physiol 108, 1106-15
20185632   Curated Info

17

Qian W, et al. (2010) PP2A regulates tau phosphorylation directly and also indirectly via activating GSK-3beta. J Alzheimers Dis 19, 1221-9
20308788   Curated Info

18

Xia Y, et al. (2010) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevents phencyclidine-induced apoptosis in developing brain by parallel activation of both the ERK and PI-3K/Akt pathways. Neuropharmacology 58, 330-6
19887077   Curated Info

19

Park YK, Park H (2010) Prevention of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta DNA binding by hypoxia during adipogenesis. J Biol Chem 285, 3289-99
19940121   Curated Info

20

Wang X, She H, Mao Z (2009) Phosphorylation of neuronal survival factor MEF2D by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in neuronal apoptosis. J Biol Chem 284, 32619-26
19801631   Curated Info

21

Muñoz MC, et al. (2009) TANK-binding kinase 1 mediates phosphorylation of insulin receptor at serine residue 994: a potential link between inflammation and insulin resistance. J Endocrinol 201, 185-97
19251743   Curated Info

22

Takemori H, et al. (2009) Inactivation of HDAC5 by SIK1 in AICAR-treated C2C12 myoblasts. Endocr J 56, 121-30
18946175   Curated Info

23

Feldman ME, et al. (2009) Active-site inhibitors of mTOR target rapamycin-resistant outputs of mTORC1 and mTORC2. PLoS Biol 7, e38
19209957   Curated Info

24

Macko AR, Beneze AN, Teachey MK, Henriksen EJ (2008) Roles of insulin signalling and p38 MAPK in the activation by lithium of glucose transport in insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle. Arch Physiol Biochem 114, 331-9
19023684   Curated Info

25

Zhang CE, et al. (2008) Homocysteine induces tau phosphorylation by inactivating protein phosphatase 2A in rat hippocampus. Neurobiol Aging 29, 1654-65
17537547   Curated Info

26

Gao MH, et al. (2008) Adenylyl cyclase type VI increases Akt activity and phospholamban phosphorylation in cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem 283, 33527-35
18838385   Curated Info

27

Li J, et al. (2007) The pro-angiogenic cytokine pleiotrophin potentiates cardiomyocyte apoptosis through inhibition of endogenous AKT/PKB activity. J Biol Chem 282, 34984-93
17925408   Curated Info

28

Henriksen EJ, Teachey MK (2007) Short-term in vitro inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 potentiates insulin signaling in type I skeletal muscle of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Metabolism 56, 931-8
17570255   Curated Info

29

Menon B, et al. (2007) Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta plays a pro-apoptotic role in beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated apoptosis in adult rat ventricular myocytes: Role of beta1 integrins. J Mol Cell Cardiol 42, 653-61
17292911   Curated Info

30

Liang MH, Chuang DM (2007) Regulation and function of glycogen synthase kinase-3 isoforms in neuronal survival. J Biol Chem 282, 3904-17
17148450   Curated Info

31

Li W, et al. (2007) Hypoxia-induced endothelial proliferation requires both mTORC1 and mTORC2. Circ Res 100, 79-87
17110594   Curated Info

32

Singh LP, Jiang Y, Cheng DW (2007) Proteomic identification of 14-3-3zeta as an adapter for IGF-1 and Akt/GSK-3beta signaling and survival of renal mesangial cells. Int J Biol Sci 3, 27-39
17200689   Curated Info

33

Fediuc S, Gaidhu MP, Ceddia RB (2006) Inhibition of insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis by 5-aminoimidasole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside-induced adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation: interactions with Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3-3alpha/beta, and glycogen synthase in isolated rat soleus muscle. Endocrinology 147, 5170-7
16873531   Curated Info

34

Parkitna JR, et al. (2006) Effects of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 inhibitors on morphine-induced analgesia and tolerance in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319, 832-9
16902054   Curated Info

35

Aschenbach WG, et al. (2006) Regulation of dishevelled and beta-catenin in rat skeletal muscle: an alternative exercise-induced GSK-3beta signaling pathway. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291, E152-8
16478782   Curated Info

36

Park SS, et al. (2006) N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide confers cardioprotection at reperfusion by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening via glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 318, 124-31
16611852   Curated Info

37

Huang D, Khoe M, Ilic D, Bryer-Ash M (2006) Reduced expression of focal adhesion kinase disrupts insulin action in skeletal muscle cells. Endocrinology 147, 3333-43
16574795   Curated Info

38

He L, et al. (2006) Chronic ethanol intake impairs insulin signaling in rats by disrupting Akt association with the cell membrane. Role of TRB3 in inhibition of Akt/protein kinase B activation. J Biol Chem 281, 11126-34
16452480   Curated Info

39

Gómez-Ramos A, et al. (2006) Sodium tungstate decreases the phosphorylation of tau through GSK3 inactivation. J Neurosci Res 83, 264-73
16397900   Curated Info

40

Shao Z, et al. (2006) c-Jun N-terminal kinases mediate reactivation of Akt and cardiomyocyte survival after hypoxic injury in vitro and in vivo. Circ Res 98, 111-8
16306447   Curated Info

41

Jensen J, et al. (2006) Muscle glycogen inharmoniously regulates glycogen synthase activity, glucose uptake, and proximal insulin signaling. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290, E154-E162
16118249   Curated Info

42

Liu HK, et al. (2006) Functional characterisation of the regulation of CAAT enhancer binding protein alpha by GSK-3 phosphorylation of Threonines 222/226. BMC Mol Biol 7, 14
16600022   Curated Info

43

Bianchi M, et al. (2005) Regulation of FAK Ser-722 phosphorylation and kinase activity by GSK3 and PP1 during cell spreading and migration. Biochem J 391, 359-70
15975092   Curated Info

44

Zhao X, et al. (2005) Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta functions through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3. J Biol Chem 280, 32683-92
16055922   Curated Info

45

Ruzzin J, Jensen J (2005) Contraction activates glucose uptake and glycogen synthase normally in muscles from dexamethasone-treated rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 289, E241-50
15741240   Curated Info

46

Rolfe M, McLeod LE, Pratt PF, Proud CG (2005) Activation of protein synthesis in cardiomyocytes by the hypertrophic agent phenylephrine requires the activation of ERK and involves phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2). Biochem J 388, 973-84
15757502   Curated Info

47

Brabant G, et al. (2005) Hepatic leptin signaling in obesity. FASEB J 19, 1048-50
15788447   Curated Info

48

Kubica N, et al. (2005) Resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and translation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2Bepsilon mRNA in a mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent manner. J Biol Chem 280, 7570-80
15591312   Curated Info

49

Takimoto E, et al. (2005) Chronic inhibition of cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase 5A prevents and reverses cardiac hypertrophy. Nat Med 11, 214-22
15665834   Curated Info

50

Yoshimura T, et al. (2005) GSK-3beta regulates phosphorylation of CRMP-2 and neuronal polarity. Cell 120, 137-49
15652488   Curated Info

51

Jordà EG, et al. (2005) Implication of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in the neuroprotective properties of lithium. Neuroscience 134, 1001-11
15979805   Curated Info

52

Chen G, et al. (2004) Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) mediates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal death. FASEB J 18, 1162-4
15132987   Curated Info

53

Yuan Z, Agarwal-Mawal A, Paudel HK (2004) 14-3-3 binds to and mediates phosphorylation of microtubule-associated tau protein by Ser9-phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in the brain. J Biol Chem 279, 26105-14
15073173   Curated Info

54

Rajala RV, et al. (2004) Interaction of the retinal insulin receptor beta-subunit with the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Biochemistry 43, 5637-50
15134438   Curated Info

55

Gross ER, Hsu AK, Gross GJ (2004) Opioid-induced cardioprotection occurs via glycogen synthase kinase beta inhibition during reperfusion in intact rat hearts. Circ Res 94, 960-6
14976126   Curated Info

56

Hilder TL, et al. (2003) Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 serine 307 correlates with JNK activity in atrophic skeletal muscle. FEBS Lett 553, 63-7
14550547   Curated Info

57

Gil C, Chaib-Oukadour I, Aguilera J (2003) C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin heavy chain activates Akt and MEK/ERK signalling pathways in a Trk receptor-dependent manner in cultured cortical neurons. Biochem J 373, 613-20
12710887   Curated Info

58

Ni Z, et al. (2003) Transcriptional activation of the proglucagon gene by lithium and beta-catenin in intestinal endocrine L cells. J Biol Chem 278, 1380-7
12421827   Curated Info

59

Hetman M, et al. (2002) ERK1/2 antagonizes glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-induced apoptosis in cortical neurons. J Biol Chem 277, 49577-84
12393899   Curated Info

60

Beffert U, et al. (2002) Reelin-mediated signaling locally regulates protein kinase B/Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. J Biol Chem 277, 49958-64
12376533   Curated Info

61

Loberg RD, Vesely E, Brosius FC (2002) Enhanced glycogen synthase kinase-3beta activity mediates hypoxia-induced apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells and is prevented by glucose transport and metabolism. J Biol Chem 277, 41667-73
12200436   Curated Info

62

Vary TC, Deiter G, Kimball SR (2002) Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2Bepsilon in skeletal muscle during sepsis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 283, E1032-9
12376332   Curated Info

63

Wang X, et al. (2002) Evidence that the dephosphorylation of Ser(535) in the epsilon-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2B is insufficient for the activation of eIF2B by insulin. Biochem J 367, 475-81
12133000   Curated Info

64

Jiang G, et al. (2002) Potentiation of insulin signaling in tissues of Zucker obese rats after acute and long-term treatment with PPARgamma agonists. Diabetes 51, 2412-9
12145152   Curated Info

65

Yusta B, Estall J, Drucker DJ (2002) Glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor activation engages bad and glycogen synthase kinase-3 in a protein kinase A-dependent manner and prevents apoptosis following inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. J Biol Chem 277, 24896-906
11978789   Curated Info

66

Sakamoto K, Hirshman MF, Aschenbach WG, Goodyear LJ (2002) Contraction regulation of Akt in rat skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem 277, 11910-7
11809761   Curated Info

67

Ballou LM, et al. (2001) Dual regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta by the alpha1A-adrenergic receptor. J Biol Chem 276, 40910-6
11533051   Curated Info

68

Beitner-Johnson D, Rust RT, Hsieh TC, Millhorn DE (2001) Hypoxia activates Akt and induces phosphorylation of GSK-3 in PC12 cells. Cell Signal 13, 23-7
11257444   Curated Info

69

Li M, et al. (2000) Cyclic AMP promotes neuronal survival by phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. Mol Cell Biol 20, 9356-63
11094086   Curated Info

70

Haq S, et al. (2000) Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is a negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. J Cell Biol 151, 117-30
11018058   Curated Info

71

Bhat RV, et al. (2000) Regulation and localization of tyrosine216 phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in cellular and animal models of neuronal degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 11074-9
10995469   Curated Info

72

Eldar-Finkelman H, et al. (1996) Expression and characterization of glycogen synthase kinase-3 mutants and their effect on glycogen synthase activity in intact cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93, 10228-33
8816781   Curated Info

73

Sutherland C, Leighton IA, Cohen P (1993) Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta by phosphorylation: new kinase connections in insulin and growth-factor signalling. Biochem J 296 ( Pt 1), 15-9
8250835   Curated Info