Thr308
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Site Information
KDGATMKtFCGTPEy   SwissProt Entrez-Gene
Blast this site against: NCBI  SwissProt  PDB 
Site Group ID: 447856

In vivo Characterization
Methods used to characterize site in vivo:
2D analysis ( 18 ) , [32P] bio-synthetic labeling ( 83 ) , immunoprecipitation ( 8 , 12 , 17 , 27 , 47 , 70 ) , mass spectrometry (in vitro) ( 8 ) , mutation of modification site ( 8 , 27 , 38 , 59 , 87 , 88 ) , phospho-antibody ( 1 , 2 , 5 , 8 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 15 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 70 , 71 , 72 , 74 , 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 88 ) , western blotting ( 1 , 2 , 5 , 8 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 15 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 54 , 56 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 70 , 71 , 72 , 74 , 76 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 83 , 87 , 88 )
Disease tissue studied:
Alzheimer's disease ( 12 , 22 ) , adrenal cancer ( 12 , 27 ) , pheochromocytoma ( 12 , 27 ) , brain cancer ( 2 , 88 ) , glioma ( 2 , 88 ) , liver cancer ( 28 , 50 , 68 ) , pancreatic cancer ( 38 , 56 , 70 , 80 ) , pancreatic carcinoma ( 38 , 56 , 70 , 80 )
Relevant cell line - cell type - tissue:
'brain, cerebral cortex' ( 18 ) , 'brain, hippocampus' ( 18 ) , 'muscle, skeletal' ( 8 , 20 , 31 , 40 , 42 , 44 , 47 , 49 , 51 , 63 , 71 , 78 , 79 ) , 'neuron, bipolar' ( 66 ) , 'neuron, cerebellar granule'-brain ( 10 , 82 ) , 'neuron, cortical'-brain ( 69 ) , 293 (epithelial) ( 28 , 52 ) , 293A (epithelial) ( 27 ) , 293T (epithelial) ( 8 ) , 32D (myeloid) ( 67 ) , 3T3 (fibroblast) ( 3 , 19 , 28 , 67 , 76 ) , 3T3-L1 (fibroblast) ( 28 , 50 , 67 ) , adipocyte ( 35 ) , adipocyte-adipose tissue ( 57 , 83 ) , aorta ( 65 , 81 ) , artery-heart ( 86 ) , BHK-21 (fibroblast) ( 77 ) , brain ( 22 ) , C6 (glial) ( 2 , 88 ) , cardiac ( 33 ) , CHO (fibroblast) [INSR (human)] ( 54 ) , COS (fibroblast) ( 38 ) , granulosa ( 37 ) , H4IIe (hepatic) ( 28 , 68 ) , HAEC (endothelial) ( 81 ) , heart ( 15 , 41 , 55 ) , hepatocyte ( 67 ) , hepatocyte-liver ( 58 , 61 ) , HepG2 (hepatic) ( 50 ) , HIRc (fibroblast) ( 74 ) , HUVEC (endothelial) ( 5 , 60 ) , IEC-18 (epithelial) ( 34 ) , IEC-18 (epithelial) [PIK3C2B (human)] ( 34 ) , INS-1 (pancreatic) ( 38 , 56 , 70 , 80 ) , L6 (myoblast) ( 19 , 24 , 26 , 45 , 50 , 64 ) , L6 (myoblast) [GLUT4 (rat)] ( 36 ) , liver ( 25 , 46 , 53 ) , M059J (glial) ( 32 ) , MCF-7 (breast cell) ( 39 ) , MDA-MB-468 (breast cell) ( 39 ) , MEF (fibroblast) ( 32 , 38 ) , muscle ( 21 ) , myocardium ( 43 ) , myocyte-heart ( 1 , 5 , 48 , 52 ) , neuron ( 27 ) , neuron-'brain, cerebellum' ( 87 ) , neuron-'brain, cerebral cortex' ( 17 ) , neuron-'brain, hippocampus' ( 75 ) , neutrophil-blood ( 11 ) , oligodendrocyte ( 88 ) , OVCAR3 (ovarian) ( 39 ) , PANC-1 (pancreatic) ( 39 ) , PC-12 (chromaffin) ( 12 , 27 ) , Rat1 (fibroblast) ( 3 , 32 , 39 ) , Rat1 (fibroblast) [INSR (human)] ( 59 ) , Rat2 (fibroblast) ( 85 ) , RFPEC (endothelial) ( 60 ) , Schwann ( 23 ) , vascular smooth muscle cell ('muscle, smooth') ( 72 )

Upstream Regulation
Regulatory protein:
ADCY6 (mouse) ( 29 ) , Akt1 (rat) ( 70 ) , ARRB1 (human) ( 59 ) , DUSP6 (human) ( 52 ) , DYN1 (rat) ( 16 ) , EEA1 (rat) ( 16 ) , FAK (rat) ( 45 ) , GJA1 (rat) ( 2 ) , GRK2 (rat) ( 1 ) , MYDGF (rat) ( 5 ) , PKCA (human) ( 60 ) , PKCA (rat) ( 16 ) , RAC1 (rat) ( 36 ) , SHC1 (rat) ( 74 ) , SHIP-2 (human) ( 74 ) , TRB3 (human) ( 46 )
Putative in vivo kinases:
PKCE (mouse) ( 33 )
Putative upstream phosphatases:
PPP2CA (rat) ( 83 )
Treatments:
1400W ( 24 ) , A-443654 ( 13 ) , acadesine ( 40 ) , action_potential ( 10 ) , adrenalectomy ( 43 ) , AEBSF ( 24 ) , AG1478 ( 39 ) , AG879 ( 66 ) , Akt-I-1,2 ( 10 ) , Akt_inhibitor_X ( 10 ) , amino_acid_starvation ( 19 ) , amino_acids ( 58 , 78 ) , angiopoietin-2 ( 1 ) , angiotensin_2 ( 16 , 24 ) , APV ( 10 ) , BDNF ( 66 ) , beta-amyloid_25-35 ( 12 ) , BRL37344 ( 76 ) , bryostatin_1 ( 34 ) , C2-ceramide ( 36 , 83 ) , cAMP_analog ( 23 ) , ceramide ( 64 ) , ciclosporin ( 84 ) , cisplatin ( 39 ) , CNQX ( 10 ) , colforsin ( 38 , 77 , 82 , 85 , 87 ) , compound_401 ( 32 ) , depolarization ( 17 , 82 ) , DHC ( 83 ) , DiC8 ( 34 ) , EGF ( 12 , 39 , 80 , 85 ) , electrical_stimulation ( 21 ) , erbstatin ( 81 ) , estradiol ( 35 ) , ethanol ( 46 , 55 , 71 ) , exercise ( 44 , 79 ) , fasting ( 20 ) , FK506 ( 84 ) , fMLP ( 11 ) , genistein ( 81 ) , GF109203X ( 64 ) , GLP-2 ( 77 ) , glucagon ( 58 ) , glucose ( 70 , 80 ) , glucose_oxidase ( 36 ) , glucose_starvation ( 30 ) , HA-1077 ( 49 ) , haloperidol ( 27 ) , hypertension ( 62 ) , hypoxia ( 48 ) , hypoxia/reoxygenation ( 48 , 61 ) , IGF-1 ( 17 , 42 , 60 , 70 , 71 , 80 , 82 , 87 ) , indinavir ( 51 ) , insulin ( 3 , 13 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 28 , 30 , 35 , 36 , 40 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 54 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 68 , 71 , 74 , 76 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 81 , 83 ) , Intralipid ( 42 ) , IR-A48 ( 3 ) , irbesartan ( 25 ) , ischemia ( 18 , 84 ) , ischemia/reperfusion ( 15 , 18 , 48 , 86 ) , kainic_acid ( 73 , 75 ) , KN-62 ( 14 ) , laser_treatment ( 12 ) , leptin ( 53 , 65 , 81 ) , leucine ( 31 ) , lithium ( 82 ) , LY294002 ( 14 , 17 , 32 , 39 , 81 ) , meal feeding ( 41 , 47 ) , metformin ( 50 ) , metoprolol ( 43 ) , muscle contraction ( 20 ) , myricetin ( 24 ) , N-ethylmaleimede ( 72 ) , nelfinavir ( 56 ) , nTZD ( 76 ) , okadaic_acid ( 22 , 83 ) , oleic_acid ( 70 ) , PD169316 ( 63 ) , PD98059 ( 30 , 63 , 66 ) , PDGF ( 32 , 72 ) , phenylephrine ( 1 , 52 ) , phorbol_ester ( 34 ) , PIK90 ( 26 ) , PP1 ( 39 ) , PP242 ( 26 ) , PP30 ( 26 ) , rapamycin ( 19 , 26 , 30 , 32 , 50 ) , reelin ( 69 ) , refeeding ( 20 ) , resistin ( 15 ) , Ro-32-0432 ( 14 ) , Ro31-8220 ( 64 , 66 ) , rosiglitazone ( 76 ) , salicylate ( 63 ) , saquinavir ( 56 ) , sepsis ( 31 ) , serum ( 21 ) , siRNA ( 45 , 46 , 50 ) , SP600125 ( 48 ) , TCH-116 ( 11 ) , TeTx ( 66 ) , TGF-alpha ( 80 ) , TGF-beta ( 37 ) , thrombin ( 14 ) , TNF ( 28 , 50 , 63 , 83 ) , trifluoperazine ( 14 ) , U0126 ( 24 ) , U73122 ( 14 ) , UCN-01 ( 57 ) , urofollitropin ( 37 ) , V-100 ( 48 ) , V-150 ( 48 ) , wortmannin ( 14 , 17 , 19 , 30 , 38 , 59 , 66 , 81 , 87 )

Downstream Regulation
Effects of modification on biological processes:
apoptosis, inhibited ( 88 )

Disease / Diagnostics Relevance
Relevant diseases:
obesity, hyperphagic ( 49 )

References 

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12

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16

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17

Song B, et al. (2010) Inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3 by CaMKII couples depolarization to neuronal survival. J Biol Chem 285, 41122-34
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18

Ayuso MI, et al. (2010) New hierarchical phosphorylation pathway of the translational repressor eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in ischemia-reperfusion stress. J Biol Chem 285, 34355-63
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19

Nascimento EB, et al. (2010) Phosphorylation of PRAS40 on Thr246 by PKB/AKT facilitates efficient phosphorylation of Ser183 by mTORC1. Cell Signal 22, 961-7
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20

Lai YC, Zarrinpashneh E, Jensen J (2010) Additive effect of contraction and insulin on glucose uptake and glycogen synthase in muscle with different glycogen contents. J Appl Physiol 108, 1106-15
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21

Funai K, et al. (2010) In vivo exercise followed by in vitro contraction additively elevates subsequent insulin-stimulated glucose transport by rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298, E999-1010
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22

Qian W, et al. (2010) PP2A regulates tau phosphorylation directly and also indirectly via activating GSK-3beta. J Alzheimers Dis 19, 1221-9
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23

Ji Y, et al. (2010) SSeCKS is a suppressor in Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. Neurochem Res 35, 219-26
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24

Csibi A, Communi D, Müller N, Bottari SP (2010) Angiotensin II inhibits insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and Akt activation through tyrosine nitration-dependent mechanisms. PLoS One 5, e10070
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25

Muñoz MC, et al. (2009) TANK-binding kinase 1 mediates phosphorylation of insulin receptor at serine residue 994: a potential link between inflammation and insulin resistance. J Endocrinol 201, 185-97
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26

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27

Wei Z, et al. (2009) Haloperidol disrupts Akt signalling to reveal a phosphorylation-dependent regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl-XS function. Cell Signal 21, 161-8
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28

Zhang J, et al. (2008) S6K directly phosphorylates IRS-1 on Ser-270 to promote insulin resistance in response to TNF-(alpha) signaling through IKK2. J Biol Chem 283, 35375-82
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29

Gao MH, et al. (2008) Adenylyl cyclase type VI increases Akt activity and phospholamban phosphorylation in cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem 283, 33527-35
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30

Giraud J, et al. (2007) Phosphorylation of Irs1 at SER-522 inhibits insulin signaling. Mol Endocrinol 21, 2294-302
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31

Vary TC (2007) Acute oral leucine administration stimulates protein synthesis during chronic sepsis through enhanced association of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G with eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in rats. J Nutr 137, 2074-9
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32

Ballou LM, et al. (2007) Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling by 2-(morpholin-1-yl)pyrimido[2,1-alpha]isoquinolin-4-one. J Biol Chem 282, 24463-70
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33

Rybin VO, et al. (2007) Protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) and Src control PKCdelta activation loop phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. J Biol Chem 282, 23631-8
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34

Guan L, et al. (2007) Protein kinase C-mediated down-regulation of cyclin D1 involves activation of the translational repressor 4E-BP1 via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-independent, protein phosphatase 2A-dependent mechanism in intestinal epithelial cells. J Biol Chem 282, 14213-25
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35

Jaubert AM, et al. (2007) Nongenomic estrogen effects on nitric oxide synthase activity in rat adipocytes. Endocrinology 148, 2444-52
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36

JeBailey L, et al. (2007) Ceramide- and oxidant-induced insulin resistance involve loss of insulin-dependent Rac-activation and actin remodeling in muscle cells. Diabetes 56, 394-403
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37

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38

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39

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40

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41

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42

Lang CH (2006) Elevated plasma free fatty acids decrease basal protein synthesis, but not the anabolic effect of leucine, in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291, E666-74
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43

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44

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45

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46

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47

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48

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49

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50

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51

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52

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53

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54

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55

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56

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57

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58

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59

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60

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61

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62

Sasser JM, et al. (2004) Reduced NOS3 phosphorylation mediates reduced NO/cGMP signaling in mesenteric arteries of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats. Hypertension 43, 1080-5
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63

de Alvaro C, Teruel T, Hernandez R, Lorenzo M (2004) Tumor necrosis factor alpha produces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle by activation of inhibitor kappaB kinase in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. J Biol Chem 279, 17070-8
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64

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65

Vecchione C, et al. (2003) Cooperation between insulin and leptin in the modulation of vascular tone. Hypertension 42, 166-70
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66

Gil C, Chaib-Oukadour I, Aguilera J (2003) C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin heavy chain activates Akt and MEK/ERK signalling pathways in a Trk receptor-dependent manner in cultured cortical neurons. Biochem J 373, 613-20
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67

Sakoda H, et al. (2003) Differing roles of Akt and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase in glucose metabolism, DNA synthesis, and oncogenic activity. J Biol Chem 278, 25802-7
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68

Greene MW, et al. (2003) Modulation of insulin-stimulated degradation of human insulin receptor substrate-1 by Serine 312 phosphorylation. J Biol Chem 278, 8199-211
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69

Beffert U, et al. (2002) Reelin-mediated signaling locally regulates protein kinase B/Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. J Biol Chem 277, 49958-64
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70

Wrede CE, et al. (2002) Protein kinase B/Akt prevents fatty acid-induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta-cells (INS-1). J Biol Chem 277, 49676-84
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71

Kumar V, Frost RA, Lang CH (2002) Alcohol impairs insulin and IGF-I stimulation of S6K1 but not 4E-BP1 in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 283, E917-28
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72

Yellaturu CR, Bhanoori M, Neeli I, Rao GN (2002) N-Ethylmaleimide inhibits platelet-derived growth factor BB-stimulated Akt phosphorylation via activation of protein phosphatase 2A. J Biol Chem 277, 40148-55
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73

Henshall DC, et al. (2002) Activation of Bcl-2-associated death protein and counter-response of Akt within cell populations during seizure-induced neuronal death. J Neurosci 22, 8458-65
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74

Ishihara H, et al. (2002) Membrane localization of Src homology 2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 via Shc association is required for the negative regulation of insulin signaling in Rat1 fibroblasts overexpressing insulin receptors. Mol Endocrinol 16, 2371-81
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75

Kim AH, et al. (2002) Akt1 regulates a JNK scaffold during excitotoxic apoptosis. Neuron 35, 697-709
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76

Jiang G, et al. (2002) Potentiation of insulin signaling in tissues of Zucker obese rats after acute and long-term treatment with PPARgamma agonists. Diabetes 51, 2412-9
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77

Yusta B, Estall J, Drucker DJ (2002) Glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor activation engages bad and glycogen synthase kinase-3 in a protein kinase A-dependent manner and prevents apoptosis following inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. J Biol Chem 277, 24896-906
11978789   Curated Info

78

Reynolds TH, Bodine SC, Lawrence JC (2002) Control of Ser2448 phosphorylation in the mammalian target of rapamycin by insulin and skeletal muscle load. J Biol Chem 277, 17657-62
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79

Sakamoto K, Hirshman MF, Aschenbach WG, Goodyear LJ (2002) Contraction regulation of Akt in rat skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem 277, 11910-7
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80

Lingohr MK, et al. (2002) Activation of IRS-2-mediated signal transduction by IGF-1, but not TGF-alpha or EGF, augments pancreatic beta-cell proliferation. Diabetes 51, 966-76
11916914   Curated Info

81

Vecchione C, et al. (2002) Leptin effect on endothelial nitric oxide is mediated through Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation pathway. Diabetes 51, 168-73
11756337   Curated Info

82

Kumari S, et al. (2001) Distinct phosphorylation patterns underlie Akt activation by different survival factors in neurons. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 96, 157-62
11731021   Curated Info

83

Teruel T, Hernandez R, Lorenzo M (2001) Ceramide mediates insulin resistance by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in brown adipocytes by maintaining Akt in an inactive dephosphorylated state. Diabetes 50, 2563-71
11679435   Curated Info

84

Yoshimoto T, et al. (2001) Cyclosporin A, but not FK506, prevents the downregulation of phosphorylated Akt after transient focal ischemia in the rat. Brain Res 899, 148-58
11311876   Curated Info

85

Kim S, et al. (2001) Cyclic AMP inhibits Akt activity by blocking the membrane localization of PDK1. J Biol Chem 276, 12864-70
11278269   Curated Info

86

Janelidze S, Hu BR, Siesjö P, Siesjö BK (2001) Alterations of Akt1 (PKBalpha) and p70(S6K) in transient focal ischemia. Neurobiol Dis 8, 147-54
11162248   Curated Info

87

Li M, et al. (2000) Cyclic AMP promotes neuronal survival by phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. Mol Cell Biol 20, 9356-63
11094086   Curated Info

88

Flores AI, et al. (2000) Akt-mediated survival of oligodendrocytes induced by neuregulins. J Neurosci 20, 7622-30
11027222   Curated Info