Ser31
Javascript is not enabled on this browser. This site will not work properly without Javascript.
PhosphoSitePlus Homepage PhosphoSitePlus® v6.6.0.1
Powered by Cell Signaling Technology
Home > Phosphorylation Site Page: > Ser31  -  TH (rat)

Site Information
KQAEAVTsPRFIGRR   SwissProt Entrez-Gene
Blast this site against: NCBI  SwissProt  PDB 
Site Group ID: 448544

In vivo Characterization
Methods used to characterize site in vivo:
[32P] bio-synthetic labeling ( 19 , 20 , 21 ) , mass spectrometry ( 3 ) , peptide sequencing ( 20 , 21 ) , phospho-antibody ( 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ) , phosphoamino acid analysis ( 20 , 21 ) , phosphopeptide mapping ( 19 , 20 , 21 ) , western blotting ( 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 , 9 , 11 , 16 , 18 )
Disease tissue studied:
adrenal cancer ( 16 , 18 , 21 ) , pheochromocytoma ( 16 , 18 , 21 ) , pituitary cancer ( 18 ) , prostate cancer ( 5 )
Relevant cell line - cell type - tissue:
'brain, caudate-putamen' ( 1 , 15 ) , 'brain, hypothalamus' ( 9 , 13 ) , 'brain, nucleus accumbens' ( 15 ) , 'brain, striatum' ( 1 , 11 , 17 , 18 ) , 'brain, substantia nigra' ( 1 ) , 'brain, ventral tegmental area' ( 1 ) , 'neuron, cortical'-brain ( 12 ) , 'neuron, substantia nigra'-brain ( 4 , 12 ) , A126-1B2 (chromaffin) ( 16 ) , adrenal gland ( 2 , 5 ) , AtT20 (pituitary cell) ( 18 ) , brain ( 2 ) , N27 (neuron) ( 4 ) , PC-12 (chromaffin) [TrkA (rat), transfection] ( 3 ) , PC-12 (chromaffin) ( 3 , 4 , 10 , 16 , 18 , 21 ) , PC3 (prostate cell) ( 5 )

Upstream Regulation
Regulatory protein:
GFRA1 (rat) ( 12 )
Putative in vivo kinases:
CDK5 (rat) ( 10 ) , ERK1 (rat) ( 19 ) , ERK2 (rat) ( 19 ) , MEK1 (rat) ( 10 ) , PKCB (rat) ( 20 )
Kinases, in vitro:
ERK1 (mouse) ( 19 ) , ERK1 (rat) ( 19 ) , ERK2 (human) ( 6 , 7 ) , ERK2 (mouse) ( 19 ) , ERK2 (rat) ( 14 , 19 )
Putative upstream phosphatases:
PPP2CB (rat) ( 5 )
Phosphatases, in vitro:
PPP2CB (rat) ( 5 )
Treatments:
A23187 ( 21 ) , angiotensin ( 13 ) , apomorphine ( 18 ) , ATP ( 19 ) , Ba(2+) ( 19 ) , bradykinin ( 19 ) , butyrolactone ( 18 ) , cocaine ( 11 , 15 ) , colforsin ( 16 , 20 ) , depolarization ( 16 , 20 ) , EGF ( 21 ) , electrical_stimulation ( 20 ) , GDNF ( 12 ) , genistein ( 19 ) , haloperidol ( 18 ) , insulin ( 2 ) , LPS ( 1 ) , muscarine ( 19 ) , nerve_damage ( 18 ) , NGF ( 16 , 19 , 21 ) , NSD-1015 ( 18 ) , okadaic_acid ( 5 , 17 , 18 , 21 ) , olomoucine ( 10 ) , PD98059 ( 10 , 16 ) , PDGF ( 3 ) , phorbol_ester ( 19 , 20 , 21 ) , PRL ( 9 ) , quinpirole ( 17 ) , rottlerin ( 4 ) , seliciclib ( 10 ) , t-Bu2BHQ ( 19 ) , thapsigargin ( 19 ) , Time ( 1 ) , U0126 ( 10 )

Downstream Regulation
Effects of modification on TH:
enzymatic activity, induced ( 13 , 15 , 19 ) , protein stabilization ( 8 )

References 

1

Ong LK, et al. (2021) Peripheral inflammation induces long-term changes in tyrosine hydroxylase activation in the substantia nigra. Neurochem Int 146, 105022
33746005   Curated Info

2

Senthilkumaran M, Johnson ME, Bobrovskaya L (2016) The Effects of Insulin-Induced Hypoglycaemia on Tyrosine Hydroxylase Phosphorylation in Rat Brain and Adrenal Gland. Neurochem Res 41, 1612-24
26935743   Curated Info

3

Biarc J, Chalkley RJ, Burlingame AL, Bradshaw RA (2012) The induction of serine/threonine protein phosphorylations by a PDGFR/TrkA chimera in stably transfected PC12 cells. Mol Cell Proteomics 11, 15-30
22027198   Curated Info

4

Zhang D, et al. (2007) Protein kinase C delta negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine synthesis by enhancing protein phosphatase-2A activity in dopaminergic neurons. J Neurosci 27, 5349-62
17507557   Curated Info

5

Saraf A, Virshup DM, Strack S (2007) Differential expression of the B'beta regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A modulates tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and catecholamine synthesis. J Biol Chem 282, 573-80
17085438   Curated Info

6

Lehmann IT, et al. (2006) Differential regulation of the human tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms via hierarchical phosphorylation. J Biol Chem 281, 17644-51
16644734   Curated Info

7

Royo M, Colette Daubner S (2006) Kinetics of regulatory serine variants of tyrosine hydroxylase with cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2. Biochim Biophys Acta 1764, 786-92
16503426   Curated Info

8

Royo M, Fitzpatrick PF, Daubner SC (2005) Mutation of regulatory serines of rat tyrosine hydroxylase to glutamate: effects on enzyme stability and activity. Arch Biochem Biophys 434, 266-74
15639226   Curated Info

9

Ma FY, Grattan DR, Goffin V, Bunn SJ (2005) Prolactin-regulated tyrosine hydroxylase activity and messenger ribonucleic acid expression in mediobasal hypothalamic cultures: the differential role of specific protein kinases. Endocrinology 146, 93-102
15388649   Curated Info

10

Moy LY, Tsai LH (2004) Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylates serine 31 of tyrosine hydroxylase and regulates its stability. J Biol Chem 279, 54487-93
15471880   Curated Info

11

Kansy JW, et al. (2004) Identification of tyrosine hydroxylase as a physiological substrate for Cdk5. J Neurochem 91, 374-84
15447670   Curated Info

12

Salvatore MF, et al. (2004) Striatal GDNF administration increases tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in the rat striatum and substantia nigra. J Neurochem 90, 245-54
15198683   Curated Info

13

Ma FY, et al. (2004) Angiotensin II regulates tyrosine hydroxylase activity and mRNA expression in rat mediobasal hypothalamic cultures: the role of specific protein kinases. J Neurochem 90, 431-41
15228599   Curated Info

14

Royo M, Daubner SC, Fitzpatrick PF (2004) Specificity of the MAP kinase ERK2 for phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase. Arch Biochem Biophys 423, 247-52
15001389   Curated Info

15

Jedynak JP, Ali SF, Haycock JW, Hope BT (2002) Acute administration of cocaine regulates the phosphorylation of serine-19, -31 and -40 in tyrosine hydroxylase. J Neurochem 82, 382-8
12124439   Curated Info

16

Salvatore MF, Waymire JC, Haycock JW (2001) Depolarization-stimulated catecholamine biosynthesis: involvement of protein kinases and tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation sites in situ. J Neurochem 79, 349-60
11677263   Curated Info

17

Lindgren N, et al. (2001) Dopamine D(2) receptors regulate tyrosine hydroxylase activity and phosphorylation at Ser40 in rat striatum. Eur J Neurosci 13, 773-80
11207812   Curated Info

18

Lew JY, et al. (1999) Increased site-specific phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase accompanies stimulation of enzymatic activity induced by cessation of dopamine neuronal activity. Mol Pharmacol 55, 202-9
9927609   Curated Info

19

Haycock JW, Ahn NG, Cobb MH, Krebs EG (1992) ERK1 and ERK2, two microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases, mediate the phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase at serine-31 in situ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89, 2365-9
1347949   Curated Info

20

Haycock JW, Haycock DA (1991) Tyrosine hydroxylase in rat brain dopaminergic nerve terminals. Multiple-site phosphorylation in vivo and in synaptosomes. J Biol Chem 266, 5650-7
1672315   Curated Info

21

Haycock JW (1990) Phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in situ at serine 8, 19, 31, and 40. J Biol Chem 265, 11682-91
1973163   Curated Info