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dystrophin Anchors the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton via F-actin. Ligand for dystroglycan. Component of the dystrophin- associated glycoprotein complex which accumulates at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and at a variety of synapses in the peripheral and central nervous systems and has a structural function in stabilizing the sarcolemma. Also implicated in signaling events and synaptic transmission. Defects in DMD are the cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DMD is the most common form of muscular dystrophy; a sex-linked recessive disorder. It typically presents in boys aged 3 to 7 year as proximal muscle weakness causing waddling gait, toe-walking, lordosis, frequent falls, and difficulty in standing up and climbing up stairs. The pelvic girdle is affected first, then the shoulder girdle. Progression is steady and most patients are confined to a wheelchair by age of 10 or 12. Flexion contractures and scoliosis ultimately occur. About 50% of patients have a lower IQ than their genetic expectations would suggest. There is no treatment. Defects in DMD are the cause of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). BMD resembles DMD in hereditary and clinical features but is later in onset and more benign. Defects in DMD are a cause of cardiomyopathy dilated X- linked type 3B (CMD3B); also known as X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLCM). Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of premature death. 6 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Cytoskeletal; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: Xp21.2-p21.1
Cellular Component: cell surface; cell-matrix junction; costamere; cytosol; dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex; filopodium; filopodium membrane; lateral plasma membrane; lipid raft; protein complex; sarcolemma; synapse; syntrophin complex; Z disc
Molecular Function: actin binding; myosin binding; nitric-oxide synthase binding; protein binding; structural constituent of cytoskeleton; structural constituent of muscle; vinculin binding
Biological Process: cardiac muscle contraction; cellular protein complex assembly; muscle fiber development; muscle filament sliding; muscle maintenance; negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; peptide biosynthetic process; regulation of heart rate; regulation of skeletal muscle contraction; regulation of skeletal muscle contraction via regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion
Disease: Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 3b; Muscular Dystrophy, Becker Type; Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne Type
Reference #:  P11532 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: BMD; CMD3B; DMD; DXS142; DXS164; DXS206; DXS230; DXS239; DXS268; DXS269; DXS270; DXS272; Dystrophin
Gene Symbols: DMD
Molecular weight: 426,750 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.64  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
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