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ATR a ser/thr kinase of the PIKK family most closely related to ATM. Activates checkpoint signaling upon genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light (UV), or DNA replication stalling, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]Q. Phosphorylates BRCA1, Chk1, MCM2, RAD17, RPA2, SMC1 and p53, which collectively inhibit DNA replication and mitosis and promote DNA repair, recombination and apoptosis. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX at sites of DNA damage, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Required for FANCD2 ubiquitination. Critical for maintenance of fragile site stability and efficient regulation of centrosome duplication. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: ATR subfamily; ATYPICAL group; EC; Kinase, lipid; Kinase, protein; Membrane protein, integral; PIKK family; Protein kinase, Ser/Thr (non-receptor); Protein kinase, atypical
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 3q23
Cellular Component: chromosome; Golgi apparatus; nuclear chromosome, telomeric region; nucleoplasm; PML body
Molecular Function: MutLalpha complex binding; MutSalpha complex binding; protein binding; protein kinase activity; protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Biological Process: cell cycle; DNA damage checkpoint; DNA repair; DNA replication; multicellular organismal development; negative regulation of DNA replication; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator; positive regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase; protein amino acid autophosphorylation; response to DNA damage stimulus
Disease: Cutaneous Telangiectasia And Cancer Syndrome, Familial; Seckel Syndrome 1
Reference #:  Q13535 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related; Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein; ATR; FRAP-related protein 1; FRAP-related protein-1; FRP1; MEC1; MEC1, mitosis entry checkpoint 1, homolog; protein kinase ATR; Rad3 related protein; SCKL; SCKL1; Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR
Gene Symbols: ATR
Molecular weight: 301,367 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 7.17  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Apoptosis Regulation  |  G1/S Checkpoint  |  G2/M DNA Damage Checkpoint  |  Mitochondrial Control of Apoptosis
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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