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GK a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes glucose metabolism in the liver and pancreatic beta cells. Acts as a ""glucose sensor"" in beta cells. The first and rate-limiting step in glycosis, a pathway that produces energy in the form of ATP from glucose. Glucokinase traps glucose inside the cell by catalyzing its phosphorylation to produce glucose-6-phosphate. Has a lower affinity for glucose than the three other isozymes of hexokinase, allowing other organs such as the brain and muscles to have first call on glucose when its supply is limited. Unlike other hexokinases, glucokinase is not inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate. Glucokinase is found in the outer membrane compartment of mitochondria. May bind VDAC, suppressing mitochondrial function. Glucokinase transcription is induced by insulin, perhaps via the activation of Stat 5B. Mutant glucokinase causes a rare form of diabetes and may also play a role in type 2 diabetes. Three splice variant isoforms of human glucokinase have been described. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Carbohydrate Metabolism - amino sugar and nucleotide sugar; Carbohydrate Metabolism - galactose; Carbohydrate Metabolism - glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; Carbohydrate Metabolism - starch and sucrose; EC; Kinase, other; Mitochondrial
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 7p13
Cellular Component: cytosol; mitochondrion; nucleoplasm
Molecular Function: ATP binding; fructokinase activity; glucokinase activity; glucose binding; mannokinase activity; protein binding
Biological Process: carbohydrate phosphorylation; cell glucose homeostasis; cellular response to insulin stimulus; detection of glucose; glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process; glucose homeostasis; glycolytic process; NADP metabolic process; negative regulation of gluconeogenesis; positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; positive regulation of insulin secretion; regulation of glycolysis; regulation of insulin secretion; regulation of potassium ion transport
Disease: Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-dependent; Diabetes Mellitus, Permanent Neonatal; Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia, Familial, 3; Maturity-onset Diabetes Of The Young, Type 2
Reference #:  P35557 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ATP:D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase; FGQTL3; GCK; GK; GLK; Glucokinase; glucokinase (hexokinase 4); hexokinase D, pancreatic isozyme; Hexokinase type IV; Hexokinase-4; Hexokinase-D; HHF3; HK IV; HK4; HKIV; HXK4; HXKP; LGLK; MODY2
Gene Symbols: GCK
Molecular weight: 52,191 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.1  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Warburg Effect
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Protein Structure Not Found.
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