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ULK1 Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in autophagy in response to starvation. Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of autophagosomes. Part of regulatory feedback loops in autophagy: acts both as a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via interaction with RPTOR. Activated via phosphorylation by AMPK and also acts as a regulator of AMPK by mediating phosphorylation of AMPK subunits PRKAA1, PRKAB2 and PRKAG1, leading to negatively regulate AMPK activity. May phosphorylate ATG13/KIAA0652 and RPTOR; however such data need additional evidences. Plays a role early in neuronal differentiation and is required for granule cell axon formation. Interacts with GABARAP and GABARAPL2. Interacts (via C- terminus) with ATG13/KIAA0652. Part of a complex consisting of ATG13/KIAA0652, ULK1 and RB1CC1. Associates with the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) through an interaction with RPTOR; the association depends on nutrient conditions and is reduced during starvation. Ubiquitously expressed. Detected in the following adult tissues: skeletal muscle, heart, pancreas, brain, placenta, liver, kidney, and lung. Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. APG1/unc-51/ULK1 subfamily. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Autophagy; EC; Kinase, protein; Other group; Protein kinase, Other; Protein kinase, Ser/Thr (non-receptor); ULK family
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 5|5 F
Cellular Component: Atg1/ULK1 kinase complex; autophagic vacuole; axon; cell soma; cytoplasm; cytoplasmic vesicle membrane; cytosol; membrane; neuron projection; phagophore assembly site; pre-autophagosomal structure membrane
Molecular Function: ATP binding; GTPase binding; Hsp90 protein binding; identical protein binding; kinase activity; nucleotide binding; protein binding; protein complex binding; protein kinase activity; protein kinase binding; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; Rab GTPase binding; transferase activity
Biological Process: autophagosome assembly; autophagy; axon extension; axonogenesis; cellular response to amino acid starvation; cellular response to nutrient levels; cerebellar granule cell differentiation; macroautophagy; macromitophagy; negative regulation of collateral sprouting; negative regulation of protein complex assembly; neuron projection development; neuron projection regeneration; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation; phosphorylation; positive regulation of autophagosome assembly; protein amino acid phosphorylation; protein autophosphorylation; protein localization; radial glia guided migration of cerebellar granule cell; Ras protein signal transduction; receptor internalization; regulation of cell death; regulation of gene expression; regulation of neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway; response to mitochondrial depolarisation; response to starvation; signal transduction
Reference #:  O70405 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ATG1; AU041434; mKIAA0722; Serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK1; Serine/threonine-protein kinase Unc51.1; Ulk1; Unc-51 like kinase 1 (C. elegans); Unc-51-like kinase 1; Unc51.1
Gene Symbols: Ulk1
Molecular weight: 112,463 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 8.93  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Autophagy Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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