The insulin-like growth factors possess growth-promoting activity. In vitro, they are potent mitogens for cultured cells. IGF-II is influenced by placental lactogen and may play a role in fetal development. Epigenetic changes of DNA hypomethylation in IGF2 are a cause of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). A clinically heterogeneous condition characterized by severe intrauterine growth retardation, poor postnatal growth, craniofacial features such as a triangular shaped face and a broad forehead, body asymmetry, and a variety of minor malformations. The phenotypic expression changes during childhood and adolescence, with the facial features and asymmetry usually becoming more subtle with age. Belongs to the insulin family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Biological Process: cellular protein metabolic process; embryonic placenta development; genetic imprinting; glucose metabolic process; in utero embryonic development; insulin receptor signaling pathway; multicellular organism development; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; ossification; platelet degranulation; positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation; positive regulation of catalytic activity; positive regulation of cell division; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of MAPK cascade; positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling; positive regulation of protein phosphorylation; regulation of histone modification; regulation of muscle cell differentiation; regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; skeletal system development