Acts as a transcriptional regulator in bone development. Represses the ALPL promoter activity and antogonizes the stimulatory effect of DLX5 on ALPL expression during osteoblast differentiation. Probable morphogenetic role. May play a role in limb-pattern formation. In osteoblasts, suppresses transcription driven by the osteocalcin FGF response element (OCFRE). Binds to the homeodomain-response element of the ALPL promoter. Defects in MSX2 are the cause of parietal foramina 1 (PFM1); also known as foramina parietalia permagna (FPP). PFM1 is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by oval defects of the parietal bones caused by deficient ossification around the parietal notch, which is normally obliterated during the fifth fetal month. Defects in MSX2 are the cause of parietal foramina with cleidocranial dysplasia (PFMCCD); also known as cleidocranial dysplasia with parietal foramina. PFMCCD combines skull defects in the form of enlarged parietal foramina and deficient ossification of the clavicles. Defects in MSX2 are the cause of craniosynostosis type 2 (CRS2); also known as craniosynostosis Boston-type (CSB). CRS2 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the premature fusion of calvarial sutures. The craniosynostosis phenotype is either fronto-orbital recession, or frontal bossing, or turribrachycephaly, or cloverleaf skull. Associated features include severe headache, high incidence of visual problems (myopia or hyperopia), and short first metatarsals. Intelligence is normal. Belongs to the Msh homeobox family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA-binding; Transcription, coactivator/corepressor