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Insulin Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver. Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds. Belongs to the insulin family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Hormone; Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 11p15.5
Cellular Component: endoplasmic reticulum lumen; endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membrane; extracellular region; extracellular space; Golgi lumen; Golgi membrane; transport vesicle
Molecular Function: hormone activity; identical protein binding; insulin receptor binding; insulin-like growth factor receptor binding; protease binding; protein binding
Biological Process: activation of protein kinase B activity; acute-phase response; alpha-beta T cell activation; cell-cell signaling; cellular protein metabolic process; cognition; ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport; fatty acid homeostasis; G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway; glucose homeostasis; glucose metabolic process; glucose transport; insulin receptor signaling pathway; MAPK cascade; negative regulation of acute inflammatory response; negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process; negative regulation of gluconeogenesis; negative regulation of glycogen catabolic process; negative regulation of lipid catabolic process; negative regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; negative regulation of protein oligomerization; negative regulation of protein secretion; negative regulation of proteolysis; positive regulation of cell differentiation; positive regulation of cell growth; positive regulation of cell migration; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process; positive regulation of cytokine secretion; positive regulation of DNA replication; positive regulation of glucose import; positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; positive regulation of glycolysis; positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process; positive regulation of MAPK cascade; positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division; positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity; positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of protein amino acid autophosphorylation; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling; regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process; regulation of protein localization; regulation of protein secretion; regulation of synaptic plasticity; regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; regulation of transmembrane transporter activity; wound healing
Disease: Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-dependent, 2; Diabetes Mellitus, Permanent Neonatal; Hyperproinsulinemia; Maturity-onset Diabetes Of The Young, Type 10
Reference #:  P01308 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ins; insulin; insulin (A chain, B chain)
Gene Symbols: INS
Molecular weight: 11,981 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.22  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  AMPK Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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