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Artemis Required for V(D)J recombination, the process by which exons encoding the antigen-binding domains of immunoglobulins and T-cell receptor proteins are assembled from individual V, (D), and J gene segments. V(D)J recombination is initiated by the lymphoid specific RAG endonuclease complex, which generates site specific DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). These DSBs present two types of DNA end structures: hairpin sealed coding ends and phosphorylated blunt signal ends. These ends are independently repaired by the non homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway to form coding and signal joints respectively. This protein exhibits single-strand specific 5'-3' exonuclease activity in isolation and acquires endonucleolytic activity on 5' and 3' hairpins and overhangs when in a complex with PRKDC. The latter activity is required specifically for the resolution of closed hairpins prior to the formation of the coding joint. May also be required for the repair of complex DSBs induced by ionizing radiation, which require substantial end-processing prior to religation by NHEJ. Defects in DCLRE1C are a cause of severe combined immunodeficiency autosomal recessive T-cell-negative/B-cell- negative/NK-cell-positive with sensitivity to ionizing radiation (RSSCID). SCID refers to a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. Patients with SCID present in infancy with recurrent, persistent infections by opportunistic organisms. The common characteristic of all types of SCID is absence of T-cell-mediated cellular immunity due to a defect in T- cell development. Individuals affected by RS-SCID show defects in the DNA repair machinery necessary for coding joint formation and the completion of V(D)J recombination. A subset of cells from such patients show increased radiosensitivity. Defects in DCLRE1C are the cause of severe combined immunodeficiency Athabaskan type (SCIDA). SCIDA is a variety of RS-SCID caused by a founder mutation in Athabascan- speaking native Americans, being inherited as an autosomal recessive trait with an estimated gene frequency of 2.1% in the Navajo population. Affected individuals exhibit clinical symptoms and defects in DNA repair comparable to those seen in RS-SCID. Defects in DCLRE1C are a cause of Omenn syndrome (OS). OS is characterized by severe combined immunodeficiency associated with erythrodermia, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and alopecia. Affected individuals have elevated T-lymphocyte counts with a restricted T- cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. They also generally lack B- lymphocytes, but have normal natural killer (NK) cell function (T+ B- NK+). Belongs to the DNA repair metallo-beta-lactamase (DRMBL) family. 4 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA repair, damage; Deoxyribonuclease; EC 3.1.-.-
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 10p13
Cellular Component: Golgi apparatus; nuclear chromosome, telomeric region; nucleoplasm
Molecular Function: 5'-3' exodeoxyribonuclease activity; 5'-3' exonuclease activity; damaged DNA binding; endonuclease activity; protein binding; single-stranded DNA specific endodeoxyribonuclease activity
Biological Process: double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining; protection from non-homologous end joining at telomere
Disease: Omenn Syndrome; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency With Sensitivity To Ionizing Radiation
Reference #:  Q96SD1 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: A-SCID; A-SCID protein; ARTEMIS; artemis protein; ASCID; DCLRE1C; DCLREC1C; DCR1C; DNA cross-link repair 1C protein; FLJ11360; FLJ36438; hSNM1C; Protein artemis; RS-SCID; SCIDA; severe combined immunodeficiency, type a (Athabascan); SNM1 homolog C; SNM1-like protein; SNM1C
Gene Symbols: DCLRE1C
Molecular weight: 78,436 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.69  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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