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TGFB1 Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. Homodimer; disulfide-linked, or heterodimer with TGFB2. Secreted and stored as a biologically inactive form in the extracellular matrix in a 290 kDa complex (large latent TGF-beta1 complex) containing the TGFB1 homodimer, the latency-associated peptide (LAP), and the latent TGFB1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1). The complex without LTBP1 is known as the'small latent TGF-beta1 complex'. Dissociation of the TGFB1 from LAP is required for growth factor activation and biological activity. Release of the large latent TGF-beta1 complex from the extracellular matrix is carried out by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP3. May interact with THSD4; this interaction may lead to sequestration by FBN1 microfibril assembly and attenuation of TGFB signaling. Interacts with the serine proteases, HTRA1 and HTRA3: the interaction with either inhibits TGFB1-mediated signaling. The HTRA protease activity is required for this inhibition. Interacts with CD109, DPT and ASPN. Activated in vitro at pH below 3.5 and over 12.5. Highly expressed in bone. Abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes and is increased in osteoarthritis (OA). Co-localizes with ASPN in chondrocytes within OA lesions of articular cartilage. Belongs to the TGF-beta family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 19q13.2
Cellular Component: cell surface; cytoplasm; extracellular matrix; extracellular region; extracellular space; Golgi lumen; microvillus; nucleus; plasma membrane; proteinaceous extracellular matrix
Molecular Function: antigen binding; cytokine activity; enzyme binding; glycoprotein binding; protein binding; punt binding; transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Biological Process: active induction of host immune response by virus; ATP biosynthetic process; BMP signaling pathway; cell cycle arrest; cell development; cell migration; chondrocyte differentiation; common-partner SMAD protein phosphorylation; connective tissue replacement during inflammatory response; epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; evasion of host defenses by virus; heart development; hemopoietic progenitor cell differentiation; hyaluronan catabolic process; inflammatory response; intercellular junction assembly and maintenance; leukocyte migration; lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway; lymph node development; MAPKKK cascade; membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis; mitotic cell cycle checkpoint; negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration; negative regulation of cell cycle; negative regulation of cell differentiation; negative regulation of cell growth; negative regulation of cell proliferation; negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion; negative regulation of DNA replication; negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; negative regulation of fat cell differentiation; negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle; negative regulation of myoblast differentiation; negative regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; negative regulation of skeletal muscle development; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; neural tube closure; neural tube development; phosphate metabolic process; platelet degranulation; positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration; positive regulation of bone mineralization; positive regulation of cell migration; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process; positive regulation of chemotaxis; positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process; positive regulation of interleukin-17 production; positive regulation of isotype switching to IgA isotypes; positive regulation of MAP kinase activity; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity; positive regulation of protein amino acid dephosphorylation; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein complex assembly; positive regulation of protein import into nucleus; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; positive regulation of protein secretion; positive regulation of superoxide release; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of vascular permeability; protein amino acid phosphorylation; protein export from nucleus; protein import into nucleus, translocation; protein kinase B signaling cascade; receptor catabolic process; regulation of apoptosis; regulation of binding; regulation of cell migration; regulation of DNA binding; regulation of protein import into nucleus; regulation of striated muscle development; regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; response to estradiol stimulus; response to progesterone stimulus; response to wounding; salivary gland morphogenesis; SMAD protein complex assembly; SMAD protein nuclear translocation; transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; vasculogenesis; ventricular cardiac muscle morphogenesis
Disease: Camurati-engelmann Disease; Cystic Fibrosis
Reference #:  P01137 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: CED; DPD1; LAP; Latency-associated peptide; TGF-beta 1 protein; TGF-beta-1; TGFB; TGFB1; TGFbeta; Transforming growth factor beta-1; transforming growth factor, beta 1
Gene Symbols: TGFB1
Molecular weight: 44,341 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 8.83  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Regulation of P38 MAPKs  |  Wnt/ß-Catenin Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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