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TNF-a Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. Homotrimer. Interacts with SPPL2B. Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Apoptosis; Cytokine; Membrane protein, integral; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 6p21.33
Cellular Component: cell surface; external side of plasma membrane; extracellular region; extracellular space; integral to plasma membrane; lipid raft; phagocytic cup; plasma membrane; recycling endosome
Molecular Function: cytokine activity; identical protein binding; protease binding; protein binding; tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Biological Process: activation of MAPK activity; activation of MAPKKK activity; activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; caspase activation; chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus; cortical actin cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis; embryonic gut development; I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; induction of apoptosis via death domain receptors; inflammatory response; leukocyte tethering or rolling; lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway; MAPKKK cascade; negative regulation of cytokine secretion during immune response; negative regulation of interleukin-6 production; negative regulation of lipid catabolic process; negative regulation of protein complex disassembly; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; negative regulation of viral genome replication; positive regulation of apoptosis; positive regulation of caspase activity; positive regulation of cell adhesion; positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process; positive regulation of chemokine production; positive regulation of cytokine production; positive regulation of cytokine secretion; positive regulation of fever; positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process; positive regulation of interleukin-8 production; positive regulation of JNK activity; positive regulation of MAP kinase activity; positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis; positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus; positive regulation of NFAT protein import into nucleus; positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of phagocytosis; positive regulation of programmed cell death; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein complex assembly; positive regulation of protein complex disassembly; positive regulation of protein kinase activity; positive regulation of protein transport; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of transcription factor activity; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; protein import into nucleus, translocation; protein kinase B signaling cascade; receptor biosynthetic process; regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; regulation of insulin secretion; response to glucocorticoid stimulus; response to salt stress; response to virus; sequestering of triacylglycerol; tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway
Disease: Asthma, Susceptibility To; Malaria, Susceptibility To; Migraine With Or Without Aura, Susceptibility To, 1
Reference #:  P01375 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: APC1 protein; Cachectin; DIF; TNF; TNF superfamily, member 2; TNF, macrophage-derived; TNF, monocyte-derived; TNF-a; TNF-alpha; TNFA; TNFSF2; Tumor necrosis factor; tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2); tumor necrosis factor alpha; Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2; Tumor necrosis factor, membrane form; Tumor necrosis factor, soluble form
Gene Symbols: TNF
Molecular weight: 25,644 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 6.44  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Death Receptor Signaling  |  Inhibition of Apoptosis  |  Insulin Receptor Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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