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VEGF Growth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth. Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of blood vessels. Binds to the FLT1/VEGFR1 and KDR/VEGFR2 receptors, heparan sulfate and heparin. NRP1/Neuropilin-1 binds isoforms VEGF-165 and VEGF-145. Isoform VEGF165B binds to KDR but does not activate downstream signaling pathways, does not activate angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth. Defects in VEGFA are a cause of susceptibility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 1 (MVCD1). These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Belongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family. 13 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative promoter. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Cytokine; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 9q12
Cellular Component: basement membrane; cell surface; cytoplasm; extracellular region; extracellular space; nucleus; secretory granule; vesicle
Molecular Function: chemoattractant activity; cytokine activity; extracellular matrix binding; fibronectin binding; growth factor activity; growth factor binding; heparin binding; identical protein binding; platelet-derived growth factor receptor binding; protein heterodimerization activity; protein homodimerization activity; receptor agonist activity; receptor binding; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 binding; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding
Biological Process: activation of CREB transcription factor; activation of protein kinase activity; aging; alveolus development; angiogenesis; artery morphogenesis; basophil chemotaxis; blood vessel development; blood vessel endothelial cell proliferation during sprouting angiogenesis; blood vessel morphogenesis; blood vessel remodeling; branching morphogenesis of a tube; camera-type eye morphogenesis; cardiac muscle fiber development; cell maturation; cell migration; cell migration during sprouting angiogenesis; cell proliferation; endothelial cell migration; epithelial cell differentiation; eye photoreceptor cell development; female pregnancy; growth; heart morphogenesis; homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue; hyaluronan metabolic process; in utero embryonic development; induction of positive chemotaxis; kidney development; lactation; lumen formation; lung development; lymphangiogenesis; macrophage differentiation; mesoderm development; monocyte differentiation; mRNA stabilization; negative regulation of apoptosis; negative regulation of bone resorption; negative regulation of caspase activity; negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion; negative regulation of fat cell differentiation; negative regulation of neuron apoptosis; negative regulation of programmed cell death; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; nervous system development; neuron development; ovarian follicle development; patterning of blood vessels; positive chemotaxis; positive regulation of angiogenesis; positive regulation of axon extension involved in axon guidance; positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration; positive regulation of cell adhesion; positive regulation of cell migration; positive regulation of cell motility; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation; positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; positive regulation of focal adhesion formation; positive regulation of MAP kinase activity; positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation; positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation; positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of positive chemotaxis; positive regulation of protein amino acid autophosphorylation; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein complex assembly; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; positive regulation of receptor internalization; positive regulation of signal transduction; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein; positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of vascular permeability; post-embryonic camera-type eye development; regulation of cell shape; regulation of cGMP metabolic process; regulation of endothelial cell differentiation; regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; response to cold; response to estradiol stimulus; response to folic acid; response to hypoxia; response to progesterone stimulus; response to vitamin A; sprouting angiogenesis; surfactant homeostasis; T-helper 1 type immune response; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway; vasculature development; wound healing
Reference #:  NP_114024 (RefSeq)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: Vascular endothelial growth factor A; Vascular permeability factor; Vegf; VEGF-A; Vegfa; VPF
Gene Symbols: Vegfa
Molecular weight: 43,084 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 9.41  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Angiogenesis
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