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KARS Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a 2 step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. When secreted, acts as a signaling molecule that induces immune response through the activation of monocyte/macrophages. Catalyzes the synthesis of diadenosine oligophosphate (Ap4A), a signaling molecule involved in the activation of MITF transcriptional activity. Interacts with HIV-1 virus GAG protein, facilitating the selective packaging of tRNA(3)(Lys), the primer for reverse transcription initiation. Homodimer; also part of a multisubunit complex that groups AIMP1, AIMP2, EEF1A1 and tRNA ligases for Arg, Asp, Glu, Gln, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met and Pro. Interacts with AIMP2 (via N- terminus) and MITF. Interacts directly with HIV-1 virus GAG protein. Up-regulated by DARS and EEF1A1, but not by AIMP2. Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase; EC; Ligase; Mitochondrial; Translation; Translation regulation
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 16q23.1
Cellular Component: cytoplasm; cytosol; extracellular space; mitochondrial matrix; mitochondrion
Molecular Function: lysine-tRNA ligase activity; protein binding
Biological Process: activation of MAPK activity; basophil activation during immune response; diadenosine tetraphosphate biosynthetic process; lysyl-tRNA aminoacylation; negative regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of cytokine secretion during immune response; positive regulation of macrophage activation; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation; tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway
Disease: Charcot-marie-tooth Disease, Recessive Intermediate B; Deafness, Autosomal Recessive 89
Reference #:  Q15046 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: KARS; KARS2; KIAA0070; KRS; lysine tRNA ligase; Lysine--tRNA ligase; LysRS; Lysyl-tRNA synthetase; SYK
Gene Symbols: KARS
Molecular weight: 68,048 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.94  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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