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GREM1 Cytokine that may play an important role during carcinogenesis and metanephric kidney organogenesis, as a BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning in maintaining the FGF4-SHH feedback loop. Down-regulates the BMP4 signaling in a dose-dependent manner. Acts as inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis. Interacts with SLIT1 and SLIT2 in a glycosylation- dependent manner. By high glucose through TGFB1-mediated pathways in mesangial cell. Down-regulated in tumor cell lines. Highly expressed in small intestine, fetal brain and colon. Weakly expressed in brain, ovary, prostate, pancreas and skeletal muscle. In brain found in the region localized around the internal capsule in the large subcortical nuclei, including caudate, putamen, substantia nigra, thalamus and subthalamus. Predominantly expressed in normal cells including neurons, astrocytes and fibroblasts. Belongs to the DAN family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 15q13.3
Molecular Function: morphogen activity; protein binding; protein homodimerization activity; receptor agonist activity; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activator activity; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding
Biological Process: cell migration during sprouting angiogenesis; cell morphogenesis; collagen fibril organization; determination of dorsal identity; limb development; negative regulation of apoptosis; negative regulation of BMP signaling pathway; negative regulation of bone mineralization; negative regulation of bone remodeling; negative regulation of chondrocyte differentiation; negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation; negative regulation of osteoblast proliferation; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of receptor internalization; positive regulation of telomerase activity; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade; signal transduction
Reference #:  O60565 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein; CKTSF1B1; Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1; DAN domain family member 2; DAND2; Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein; DRM; GREM1; GREMLIN; gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog (Xenopus laevis); gremlin 1-like protein; Gremlin-1; IHG-2; Increased in high glucose protein 2; increased in high glucose-2; MGC126660; PIG2; proliferation-inducing gene 2
Gene Symbols: GREM1
Molecular weight: 20,697 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 9.53  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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