Crucial silencing factor contributing to the initiation of X inactivation mediated by Xist RNA that occurs during embryogenesis and in lymphoma. Binds to DNA at special AT-rich sequences, the consensus SATB1-binding sequence (CSBS), at nuclear matrix- or scaffold-associated regions. Thought to recognize the sugar-phosphate structure of double-stranded DNA. Transcriptional repressor controlling nuclear and viral gene expression in a phosphorylated and acetylated status-dependent manner, by binding to matrix attachment regions (MARs) of DNA and inducing a local chromatin-loop remodeling. Acts as a docking site for several chromatin remodeling enzymes (e.g. PML at the MHC-I locus) and also by recruiting corepressors (HDACs) or coactivators (HATs) directly to promoters and enhancers. Modulates genes that are essential in the maturation of the immune T-cell CD8SP from thymocytes. Required for the switching of fetal globin species, and beta- and gamma-globin genes regulation during erythroid differentiation. Plays a role in chromatin organization and nuclear architecture during apoptosis. Interacts with the unique region (UR) of cytomegalovirus (CMV). Alu-like motifs and SATB1- binding sites provide a unique chromatin context which seems preferentially targeted by the HIV-1 integration machinery. Moreover, HIV-1 Tat may overcome SATB1-mediated repression of IL2 and IL2RA (interleukin) in T-cells by binding to the same domain than HDAC1. Delineates specific epigenetic modifications at target gene loci, directly up-regulating metastasis-associated genes while down-regulating tumor-suppressor genes. Reprograms chromatin organization and the transcription profiles of breast tumors to promote growth and metastasis. Interacts (via DNA-binding domains) with CUX1; leading to inhibit the attachment to DNA. Homodimer. Part of the nuclear protein complex gamma-globin promoter and enhancer binding factor (gamma-PE) composed at least by SATB1 and HOXB2. Interaction with CtBP1 when not acetylated stabalizes attachment to DNA and promotes transcription repression. Interacts with PCAF. Interacts with sumoylated PML, HDAC1 and HIV-1 Tat via the PDZ- like dimerization domain. Interacts also with DYNLT3 and POLR2J2. Binds to EP300. Expressed predominantly in thymus. Belongs to the CUT homeobox family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Alt. Names/Synonyms: DNA-binding protein SATB1; SATB homeobox 1; SATB1; special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1; special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (binds to nuclear matrix/scaffold-associating DNA's); Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1