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ADAR Converts multiple adenosines to inosines and creates I/U mismatched base pairs in double-helical RNA substrates without apparent sequence specificity. Has been found to modify more frequently adenosines in AU-rich regions, probably due to the relative ease of melting A/U base pairs as compared to G/C pairs. Functions to modify viral RNA genomes and may be responsible for hypermutation of certain negative-stranded viruses. Edits the messenger RNAs for glutamate receptor (GLUR) subunits by site- selective adenosine deamination. Produces low-level editing at the GLUR-B Q/R site, but edits efficiently at the R/G site and HOTSPOT1. Binds to short interfering RNAs (siRNA) without editing them and suppresses siRNA-mediated RNA interference. Binds to ILF3/NF90 and up-regulates ILF3-mediated gene expression. Isoform 1 is induced by interferon alpha. Isoform 5 is constitutively expressed. Homodimer. Isoform 1 interacts with ILF2/NF45 and ILF3/NF90. 5 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative promoter. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC; Hydrolase; Nucleolus; RNA processing; RNA-binding
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 1q21.3
Cellular Component: cytoplasm; membrane; nucleolus; nucleoplasm; nucleus
Molecular Function: double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity; protein binding; RNA binding
Biological Process: adenosine to inosine editing; base conversion or substitution editing; innate immune response; miRNA-mediated gene silencing, miRNA loading onto RISC; positive regulation of viral genome replication; pre-microRNA processing; response to virus
Disease: Aicardi-goutieres Syndrome 6; Dyschromatosis Symmetrica Hereditaria
Reference #:  P55265 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: 136 kDa double-stranded RNA binding protein; 136 kDa double-stranded RNA-binding protein; ADAR; ADAR1; adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1-A; adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific; Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase; DRADA; DSH; DSRAD; G1P1; IFI-4; IFI4; interferon-induced protein 4; Interferon-inducible protein 4; K88DSRBP; p136
Gene Symbols: ADAR
Molecular weight: 136,066 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 8.86  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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