eIF2-alpha Functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA. This complex binds to a 40S ribosomal subunit, followed by mRNA binding to form a 43S pre-initiation complex. Junction of the 60S ribosomal subunit to form the 80S initiation complex is preceded by hydrolysis of the GTP bound to eIF-2 and release of an eIF-2-GDP binary complex. In order for eIF-2 to recycle and catalyze another round of initiation, the GDP bound to eIF-2 must exchange with GTP by way of a reaction catalyzed by eIF-2B. Belongs to the eIF-2-alpha family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: RNA-binding; Translation; Translation initiation
Chromosomal Location of human Ortholog: 14q23.3
Cellular Component:  cytoplasmic stress granule; cytosol; eukaryotic 48S preinitiation complex; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 complex; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B complex; glial limiting end-foot; multi-eIF complex; nucleus; polysome; synapse; translation initiation ternary complex
Molecular Function:  protein binding; ribosome binding; translation initiation factor activity
Biological Process:  aging; cellular response to amino acid starvation; cellular response to heat; cellular response to oxidative stress; cellular response to UV; negative regulation of guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity; negative regulation of translational initiation in response to stress; PERK-mediated unfolded protein response; positive regulation of neuron death; positive regulation of type B pancreatic cell apoptotic process; protein autophosphorylation; regulation of translational initiation in response to stress; response to endoplasmic reticulum stress; response to manganese-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress; stress granule assembly; translational initiation
Reference #:  P05198 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: EIF-2; eIF-2-alpha; eIF-2A; eIF-2alpha; EIF2; eIF2-alpha; EIF2A; EIF2S1; Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1; Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 1 alpha, 35kDa; IF2A
Gene Symbols: EIF2S1
Molecular weight: 36,112 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.02  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Translation: eIF2  |  Translational Control
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  Reactome  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  Phospho3D  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  GeneCards  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  InnateDB  |  Ensembl Protein