MSH2 Component of the post-replicative DNA mismatch repair system (MMR). Forms two different heterodimers: MutS alpha (MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer) and MutS beta (MSH2-MSH3 heterodimer) which binds to DNA mismatches thereby initiating DNA repair. When bound, heterodimers bend the DNA helix and shields approximately 20 base pairs. MutS alpha recognizes single base mismatches and dinucleotide insertion-deletion loops (IDL) in the DNA. MutS beta recognizes larger insertion-deletion loops up to 13 nucleotides long. After mismatch binding, MutS alpha or beta forms a ternary complex with the MutL alpha heterodimer, which is thought to be responsible for directing the downstream MMR events, including strand discrimination, excision, and resynthesis. Recruits DNA helicase MCM9 to chromatin which unwinds the mismatch containg DNA strand. ATP binding and hydrolysis play a pivotal role in mismatch repair functions. The ATPase activity associated with MutS alpha regulates binding similar to a molecular switch: mismatched DNA provokes ADP-- Belongs to the DNA mismatch repair MutS family. Ubiquitously expressed. 2 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA-binding; Tumor suppressor
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 2p21-p16.3
Cellular Component:  MutSalpha complex; MutSbeta complex; nucleoplasm; nucleus
Molecular Function:  centromeric DNA binding; chromatin binding; DNA binding; enzyme binding; guanine/thymine mispair binding; protein binding; protein C-terminus binding; protein homodimerization activity; protein kinase binding
Biological Process:  B cell differentiation; B cell mediated immunity; cell cycle arrest; determination of adult lifespan; DNA repair; germ cell development; in utero embryonic development; isotype switching; maintenance of DNA repeat elements; male gonad development; mismatch repair; negative regulation of DNA recombination; negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process; oxidative phosphorylation; positive regulation of helicase activity; positive regulation of isotype switching to IgA isotypes; positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes; postreplication repair; protein localization to chromatin; response to UV-B; response to X-ray; somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes; somatic recombination of immunoglobulin gene segments
Disease: Lynch Syndrome I; Mismatch Repair Cancer Syndrome 2; Muir-torre Syndrome
Reference #:  P43246 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: COCA1; DNA mismatch repair protein Msh2; DNA mismatch repair protein Msh2 transcript; FCC1; hMSH2; HNPCC; HNPCC1; LCFS2; MSH2; mutS homolog 2; mutS homolog 2, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 1; mutS homolog 2, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 1 (E. coli); MutS protein homolog 2
Gene Symbols: MSH2
Molecular weight: 104,743 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.58  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

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