Artemis Required for V(D)J recombination, the process by which exons encoding the antigen-binding domains of immunoglobulins and T-cell receptor proteins are assembled from individual V, (D), and J gene segments. V(D)J recombination is initiated by the lymphoid specific RAG endonuclease complex, which generates site specific DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). These DSBs present two types of DNA end structures: hairpin sealed coding ends and phosphorylated blunt signal ends. These ends are independently repaired by the non homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway to form coding and signal joints respectively. This protein exhibits single-strand specific 5'-3' exonuclease activity in isolation and acquires endonucleolytic activity on 5' and 3' hairpins and overhangs when in a complex with PRKDC. The latter activity is required specifically for the resolution of closed hairpins prior to the formation of the coding joint. May also be required for the repair of complex DSBs induced by ionizing radiation, which require substantial end-processing prior to religation by NHEJ. Belongs to the DNA repair metallo-beta-lactamase (DRMBL) family. Ubiquitously expressed, with highest levels in the kidney, lung, pancreas and placenta (at the mRNA level). Expression is not increased in thymus or bone marrow, sites of V(D)J recombination. 4 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA repair, damage; Deoxyribonuclease; EC 3.1.-.-
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 2|2 A1
Cellular Component:  Golgi apparatus; nonhomologous end joining complex; nuclear chromosome, telomeric region; nucleoplasm; nucleus
Molecular Function:  5'-3' exodeoxyribonuclease activity; 5'-3' exonuclease activity; damaged DNA binding; endonuclease activity; exonuclease activity; hydrolase activity; nuclease activity; single-stranded DNA endodeoxyribonuclease activity
Biological Process:  adaptive immune response; B cell differentiation; cellular response to DNA damage stimulus; chromosome organization; DNA recombination; DNA repair; double-strand break repair; double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining; immune system process; interstrand cross-link repair; protection from non-homologous end joining at telomere; response to ionizing radiation; telomere maintenance; V(D)J recombination
Reference #:  Q8K4J0 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: 9930121L06Rik; AI661365; Art; artemis; Dclre1c; DCR1C; DNA cross-link repair 1A, PSO2 homolog; DNA cross-link repair 1C; DNA cross-link repair 1C protein; DNA cross-link repair 1C, PSO2 homolog; DNA cross-link repair 1C, PSO2 homolog (S. cerevisiae); mArt; MGC123409; OTTMUSP00000011550; OTTMUSP00000011552; Protein artemis; SNM1-like protein; Snm1l
Gene Symbols: Dclre1c
Molecular weight: 78,834 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.72  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene