AMPKA2 a catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Acts as an energy sensor, playing a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. A protein kinase of the CAMKL family whose activation is regulated by the balance between ADP/AMP/ATP, and intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Acts as a metabolic stress-sensing protein kinase switching off biosynthetic pathways when cellular ATP levels are depleted and when 5'-ADP and -AMP rise in response to fuel limitation and/or hypoxia. Activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes. Restores ATP levels in cells by switching off anabolic and switching on catabolic pathways. Activated primarily by rising ADP levels and not, as previously thought, solely by AMP. AMPK resembles an adenylate charge regulatory system in which anabolic and catabolic pathways are regulated by adenine nucleotide ratios. Acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes and transcription regulators. Regulates fatty acid synthesis by phosphorylating acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Regulates cholesterol synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating hormone-sensitive lipase and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Activated by at least two distinct upstream kinases: the tumor suppressor LKB1 and CaMKK2. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton, probably by indirectly activating myosin. AMPK is a heterotrimer of an alpha catalytic subunit (AMPKA1 or -2), a beta (AMPKB1 or -2) and a gamma non-catalytic subunit (AMPKG1, -2 or -3). Different possible combinations of subunits give rise to 12 different holoenzymes. Binding of ADP or AMP to non-catalytic gamma subunit (PRKAG1, -2 or -3) results in allosteric activation. AMPK is activated by antihyperglycemic drug metformin, a drug prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes: in vivo, metformin seems to mainly inhibit liver gluconeogenesis. However, metformin can be used to activate AMPK in muscle and other cells in culture or ex vivo. Selectively inhibited by compound C (6-[4-(2-Piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine. Activated by resveratrol, a natural polyphenol present in red wine, and S17834, a synthetic polyphenol. Salicylate/aspirin directly activates kinase activity. Studies in the mouse suggest that AMPK2 may control whole-body insulin sensitivity and is necessary for maintaining myocardial energy homeostasis during ischemia. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: AMPK subfamily; Autophagy; CAMK group; CAMKL family; EC; EC; EC; Kinase, protein; Protein kinase, CAMK; Protein kinase, Ser/Thr (non-receptor)
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 4|4 C6
Cellular Component:  apical plasma membrane; axon; cytoplasm; cytoplasmic stress granule; dendrite; Golgi apparatus; neuronal cell body; nuclear speck; nucleotide-activated protein kinase complex; nucleus; protein-containing complex
Molecular Function:  [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] kinase activity; [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] kinase activity; AMP-activated protein kinase activity; ATP binding; chromatin binding; histone serine kinase activity; kinase activity; metal ion binding; nucleotide binding; protein binding; protein binding, bridging; protein kinase activity; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity; transferase activity
Biological Process:  autophagy; cellular response to calcium ion; cellular response to drug; cellular response to glucose starvation; cellular response to glucose stimulus; cellular response to nutrient levels; cellular response to oxidative stress; cellular response to prostaglandin E stimulus; cholesterol biosynthetic process; cholesterol metabolic process; chromatin organization; energy homeostasis; fatty acid biosynthetic process; fatty acid homeostasis; fatty acid metabolic process; glucose homeostasis; intracellular signal transduction; lipid biosynthetic process; lipid metabolic process; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of gene expression; negative regulation of TOR signaling; negative regulation of tubulin deacetylation; phosphorylation; positive regulation of autophagy; positive regulation of cellular protein localization; positive regulation of glycolytic process; positive regulation of peptidyl-lysine acetylation; protein heterooligomerization; protein phosphorylation; regulation of circadian rhythm; regulation of gene expression; regulation of lipid metabolic process; regulation of macroautophagy; regulation of microtubule cytoskeleton organization; regulation of stress granule assembly; response to activity; response to caffeine; response to muscle activity; rhythmic process; steroid biosynthetic process; steroid metabolic process; sterol biosynthetic process; Wnt signaling pathway
Reference #:  Q8BRK8 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: 2310008I11Rik; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2; A830082D05; AAPK2; AMPK subunit alpha-2; AMPK2; AMPKalpha2; OTTMUSP00000008485; Prkaa2; protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit
Gene Symbols: Prkaa2
Molecular weight: 62,022 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 7.94  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  AMPK Signaling  |  Autophagy Signaling  |  Insulin Receptor Signaling  |  mTOR Signaling  |  Translation: eIF4E and p70S6K  |  Warburg Effect
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  KinBase  |  Pfam  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  Ensembl Protein