TWIST1 Acts as a transcriptional regulator. Inhibits myogenesis by sequestrating E proteins, inhibiting trans-activation by MEF2, and inhibiting DNA-binding by MYOD1 through physical interaction. This interaction probably involves the basic domains of both proteins. Also represses expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFA and IL1B. Regulates cranial suture patterning and fusion. Activates transcription as a heterodimer with E proteins. Regulates gene expression differentially, depending on dimer composition. Homodimers induce expression of FGFR2 and POSTN while heterodimers repress FGFR2 and POSTN expression and induce THBS1 expression. Heterodimerization is also required for osteoblast differentiation. Represses the activity of the circadian transcriptional activator: NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer. Subset of mesodermal cells. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Cell development/differentiation; DNA-binding; Inhibitor; Transcription regulation
Chromosomal Location of human Ortholog: 7p21.1
Cellular Component:  chromatin; nucleoplasm; nucleus
Molecular Function:  bHLH transcription factor binding; cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding; DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; DNA-binding transcription factor binding; DNA-binding transcription repressor activity; E-box binding; histone deacetylase binding; protein binding; protein domain specific binding; protein homodimerization activity; RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding; transcription coregulator binding
Biological Process:  aortic valve morphogenesis; cardiac neural crest cell migration involved in outflow tract morphogenesis; cell proliferation involved in heart valve development; cellular response to growth factor stimulus; cellular response to hypoxia; cranial suture morphogenesis; developmental process; embryonic camera-type eye formation; embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis; embryonic digit morphogenesis; embryonic forelimb morphogenesis; embryonic hindlimb morphogenesis; endocardial cushion morphogenesis; energy homeostasis; eyelid development in camera-type eye; in utero embryonic development; mitral valve morphogenesis; muscle organ development; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of cellular senescence; negative regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator; negative regulation of DNA-templated transcription; negative regulation of double-strand break repair; negative regulation of histone acetylation; negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production; negative regulation of miRNA transcription; negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation; negative regulation of oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler activity; negative regulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling; negative regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development; negative regulation of striated muscle tissue development; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production; neural tube closure; neuron migration; ossification; osteoblast differentiation; outer ear morphogenesis; positive regulation of angiogenesis; positive regulation of cell migration; positive regulation of cell motility; positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription initiation; positive regulation of endocardial cushion to mesenchymal transition involved in heart valve formation; positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition; positive regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidation; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of interleukin-6 production; positive regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding; positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production; regulation of bone mineralization; regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; rhythmic process; roof of mouth development
Disease: Craniosynostosis 1; Robinow-sorauf Syndrome; Saethre-chotzen Syndrome; Sweeney-cox Syndrome
Reference #:  Q15672 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ACS3; B-HLH DNA binding protein; BHLHA38; BPES2; BPES3; Class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 38; CRS; CRS1; CSO; H-twist; SCS; SWCOS; TWIST; twist basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1; twist family bHLH transcription factor 1; twist homolog 1; twist homolog 1 (Drosophila); TWIST homolog of drosophila; Twist-related protein 1; TWIST1; TWST1
Gene Symbols: TWIST1
Molecular weight: 20,954 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 9.48  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  GeneCards  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  InnateDB  |  Ensembl Protein