ULK1 Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in autophagy in response to starvation. Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of autophagosomes. Part of regulatory feedback loops in autophagy: acts both as a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via interaction with RPTOR. Activated via phosphorylation by AMPK and also acts as a regulator of AMPK by mediating phosphorylation of AMPK subunits PRKAA1, PRKAB2 and PRKAG1, leading to negatively regulate AMPK activity. May phosphorylate ATG13/KIAA0652 and RPTOR; however such data need additional evidences. Plays a role early in neuronal differentiation and is required for granule cell axon formation. May also phosphorylate SESN2 and SQSTM1 to regulate autophagy. Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. APG1/unc-51/ULK1 subfamily. Ubiquitously expressed. Detected in the following adult tissues: skeletal muscle, heart, pancreas, brain, placenta, liver, kidney, and lung. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Autophagy; EC 2.7.11.1; Kinase, protein; Other group; Protein kinase, Other; Protein kinase, Ser/Thr (non-receptor); ULK family
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 12q24.33
Cellular Component:  Atg1/ULK1 kinase complex; autophagosome; axon; cytoplasm; cytosol; endoplasmic reticulum membrane; extrinsic component of autophagosome membrane; extrinsic component of omegasome membrane; extrinsic component of phagophore assembly site membrane; mitochondrial outer membrane; phagophore assembly site membrane; recycling endosome
Molecular Function:  ATP binding; GTPase binding; identical protein binding; kinase activity; protein binding; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; protein-containing complex binding; Rab GTPase binding
Biological Process:  autophagy; autophagy of host cells involved in interaction with symbiont; cellular response to nutrient levels; macroautophagy; negative regulation of protein complex assembly; neuron projection development; neuron projection regeneration; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation; positive regulation of autophagosome assembly; positive regulation of autophagy; protein autophosphorylation; protein localization; protein phosphorylation; regulation of macroautophagy; response to starvation; signal transduction
Reference #:  O75385 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ATG1; ATG1 autophagy related 1 homolog; FLJ38455; FLJ46475; KIAA0722; Serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK1; ULK1; Unc-51-like kinase 1; unc-51-like kinase 1 (C. elegans); UNC51; Unc51.1
Gene Symbols: ULK1
Molecular weight: 112,631 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 9.03  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Autophagy Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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ULK1

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