Transmembrane serine/threonine kinase activin type-2 receptor forming an activin receptor complex with activin type-1 serine/threonine kinase receptors (ACVR1, ACVR1B or ACVR1c). Transduces the activin signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm and is thus regulating many physiological and pathological processes including neuronal differentiation and neuronal survival, hair follicle development and cycling, FSH production by the pituitary gland, wound healing, extracellular matrix production, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. Activin is also thought to have a paracrine or autocrine role in follicular development in the ovary. Within the receptor complex, the type-2 receptors act as a primary activin receptors (binds activin-A/INHBA, activin-B/INHBB as well as inhibin-A/INHA-INHBA). The type-1 receptors like ACVR1B act as downstream transducers of activin signals. Activin binds to type-2 receptor at the plasma membrane and activates its serine-threonine kinase. The activated receptor type-2 then phosphorylates and activates the type-1 receptor. Once activated, the type-1 receptor binds and phosphorylates the SMAD proteins SMAD2 and SMAD3, on serine residues of the C-terminal tail. Soon after their association with the activin receptor and subsequent phosphorylation, SMAD2 and SMAD3 are released into the cytoplasm where they interact with the common partner SMAD4. This SMAD complex translocates into the nucleus where it mediates activin-induced transcription. Inhibitory SMAD7, which is recruited to ACVR1B through FKBP1A, can prevent the association of SMAD2 and SMAD3 with the activin receptor complex, thereby blocking the activin signal. Activin signal transduction is also antagonized by the binding to the receptor of inhibin-B via the IGSF1 inhibin coreceptor. Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family. TGFB receptor subfamily. 2 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC 18.104.22.168; Kinase, protein; Membrane protein, integral; Protein kinase, Ser/Thr (receptor); Protein kinase, TKL; STKR family; TKL group; Type2 subfamily
Molecular Function: activin binding; activin receptor activity; activin receptor activity, type II; ATP binding; growth factor binding; metal ion binding; protein binding; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity
Biological Process: activation of protein kinase activity; activin receptor signaling pathway; anterior/posterior pattern specification; artery development; blood vessel remodeling; BMP signaling pathway; cellular response to growth factor stimulus; determination of left/right symmetry; embryonic foregut morphogenesis; gastrulation with mouth forming second; heart development; insulin secretion; kidney development; lung development; lymphangiogenesis; lymphatic endothelial cell differentiation; mesoderm development; negative regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth; organ growth; pancreas development; positive regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of bone mineralization; positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation; post-embryonic development; protein phosphorylation; regulation of DNA-templated transcription; response to glucose; retina vasculature development in camera-type eye; roof of mouth development; signal transduction; skeletal system morphogenesis; transmembrane receptor protein serine/threonine kinase signaling pathway; venous blood vessel development