a receptor tyrosine kinase. This is a receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and related growth factors including TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, GP30, and vaccinia virus growth factor. EGFR is involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation. It is a single-pass transmembrane tyrosine kinase. Ligand binding to this receptor results in receptor dimerization, autophosphorylation (in trans), activation of various downstream signaling molecules and lysosomal degradation. It can be phosphorylated and activated by Src. Activated EGFR binds the SH2 domain of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma), activating PLC-gamma-mediated downstream signaling. Phosphorylated EGFR binds Cbl, leading to its ubiquitination and degradation. Grb2 and SHC bind to phospho-EGFR and are involved in the activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Phosphorylation on Ser and Thr residues is thought to represent a mechanism for attenuation of EGFR kinase activity. EGFR is overexpressed in breast, head and neck cancers, correlating with poor survival. Activating somatic mutations are seen in lung cancer, corresponding to the minority of patients with strong responses to the EGFR inhibitor Iressa (gefitinib). Mutations and amplifications are also seen in glioblastoma, and upregulation is seen in colon cancer and neoplasms. In xenografts, inhibitors synergize with cytotoxic drugs in the inhibition of many tumor types. Inhibitors include: Iressa/ZD1839, Erbitux, Tarceva, and lapatinib. Four alternatively spliced isoforms have been described. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC 126.96.36.199; EGFR family; Kinase, protein; Membrane protein, integral; Oncoprotein; Protein kinase, TK; Protein kinase, tyrosine (receptor); TK group