HMGCR the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis. Regulated via a negative feedback mechanism mediated by sterols and non-sterol metabolites derived from mevalonate, the product of the reaction catalyzed by this reductase. Normally in mammalian cells this enzyme is suppressed by cholesterol derived from the internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptor. Competitive inhibitors of the reductase induce the expression of LDL receptors in the liver, which in turn increases the catabolism of plasma LDL and lowers the plasma concentration of cholesterol, an important determinant of atherosclerosis. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC; Endoplasmic reticulum; Membrane protein, integral; Membrane protein, multi-pass; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Oxidoreductase; Secondary Metabolites Metabolism - terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 13 D1|13 50.65 cM
Cellular Component:  endoplasmic reticulum; endoplasmic reticulum membrane; integral component of membrane; intracellular membrane-bounded organelle; membrane; peroxisomal membrane
Molecular Function:  coenzyme binding; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) activity; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity; NADP binding; NADPH binding; oxidoreductase activity; oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor; protein homodimerization activity; protein phosphatase 2A binding
Biological Process:  cholesterol biosynthetic process; cholesterol metabolic process; coenzyme A metabolic process; isoprenoid biosynthetic process; lipid metabolic process; negative regulation of amyloid-beta clearance; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of blood vessel diameter; negative regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus; negative regulation of MAP kinase activity; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; negative regulation of protein secretion; negative regulation of striated muscle cell apoptotic process; negative regulation of wound healing; oxidation-reduction process; positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; positive regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade; protein tetramerization; steroid biosynthetic process; steroid metabolic process; sterol biosynthetic process; ubiquinone metabolic process; visual learning
Reference #:  Q01237 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase; HMDH; HMG-CoA reductase; HMG-CoAR; Hmgcr; MGC103269; Red
Gene Symbols: Hmgcr
Molecular weight: 97,040 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 6.3  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  AMPK Signaling
Select Structure to View Below


Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene