ARG3.1 Master regulator of synaptic plasticity that self-assembles into virion-like capsids that encapsulate RNAs and mediate intercellular RNA transfer in the nervous system. ARC protein is released from neurons in extracellular vesicles that mediate the transfer of ARC mRNA into new target cells, where ARC mRNA can undergo activity-dependent translation. ARC capsids are endocytosed and are able to transfer ARC mRNA into the cytoplasm of neurons. Acts as a key regulator of synaptic plasticity: required for protein synthesis-dependent forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) and for the formation of long-term memory. Regulates synaptic plasticity by promoting endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in response to synaptic activity: this endocytic pathway maintains levels of surface AMPARs in response to chronic changes in neuronal activity through synaptic scaling, thereby contributing to neuronal homeostasis. Acts as a postsynaptic mediator of activity-dependent synapse elimination in the developing cerebellum by mediating elimination of surplus climbing fiber synapses. Accumulates at weaker synapses, probably to prevent their undesired enhancement. This suggests that ARC-containing virion-like capsids may be required to eliminate synaptic material. Required to transduce experience into long-lasting changes in visual cortex plasticity and for long-term memory. Involved in postsynaptic trafficking and processing of amyloid-beta A4 (APP) via interaction with PSEN1. In addition to its role in synapses, also involved in the regulation of the immune system: specifically expressed in skin-migratory dendritic cells and regulates fast dendritic cell migration, thereby regulating T-cell activation. Belongs to the ARC/ARG3.1 family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Cytoskeletal; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 8q24.3
Cellular Component:  acrosomal vesicle; cell cortex; cell junction; cytoplasm; dendritic spine; early endosome membrane; extracellular vesicle; glutamatergic synapse; membrane raft; neuronal cell body; plasma membrane; postsynaptic density membrane; postsynaptic endosome
Molecular Function:  mRNA binding
Biological Process:  anterior/posterior pattern specification; cell migration; cytoskeleton organization; dendritic spine morphogenesis; endocytosis; endoderm development; learning; long-term memory; long-term synaptic potentiation; mRNA transport; protein homooligomerization; regulation of cell morphogenesis; regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis; regulation of long-term synaptic depression; regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation; regulation of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor internalization; vesicle-mediated intercellular transport
Reference #:  Q7LC44 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: activity regulated cytoskeleton associated protein; Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein; Activity-regulated gene 3.1 protein homolog; ARC; ARC/ARG3.1; Arg3.1; hArc; KIAA0278
Gene Symbols: ARC
Molecular weight: 45,316 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.45  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  Phospho.ELM  |  GeneCards  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene