HMGB2 Multifunctional protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. May act in a redox sensitive manner. In the nucleus is an abundant chromatin-associated non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and V(D)J recombination and probably other processes. Binds DNA with a preference to non-canonical DNA structures such as single-stranded DNA. Can bent DNA and enhance DNA flexibility by looping thus providing a mechanism to promote activities on various gene promoters by enhancing transcription factor binding and/or bringing distant regulatory sequences into close proximity. Involved in V(D)J recombination by acting as a cofactor of the RAG complex: acts by stimulating cleavage and RAG protein binding at the 23 bp spacer of conserved recombination signal sequences (RSS). Proposed to be involved in the innate immune response to nucleic acids by acting as a promiscuous immunogenic DNA/RNA sensor which cooperates with subsequent discriminative sensing by specific pattern recognition receptors. In the extracellular compartment acts as a chemokine. Promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells implicating AGER/RAGE. Has antimicrobial activity in gastrointestinal epithelial tissues. Involved in inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus coupled with proinflammatory activity. Involved in modulation of neurogenesis probably by regulation of neural stem proliferation. Involved in articular cartilage surface maintenance implicating LEF1 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Belongs to the HMGB family. Expressed in gastric and intestinal tissues (at protein level). Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA-binding; Nuclear receptor co-regulator
Chromosomal Location of human Ortholog: 4q34.1
Cellular Component:  chromatin; condensed chromosome; cytoplasm; extracellular space; nucleolus; nucleoplasm; nucleus; perinuclear region of cytoplasm; protein-containing complex
Molecular Function:  chemoattractant activity; cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding; damaged DNA binding; DNA binding; DNA binding, bending; DNA-binding transcription factor binding; double-stranded DNA binding; four-way junction DNA binding; non-sequence-specific DNA binding, bending; protein binding; protein domain specific binding; RAGE receptor binding; single-stranded DNA binding; supercoiled DNA binding; transcription cis-regulatory region binding; transcription coactivator activity; transcription factor binding
Biological Process:  cell chemotaxis; cellular response to lipopolysaccharide; chromatin organization; defense response to Gram-negative bacterium; defense response to Gram-positive bacterium; DNA geometric change; DNA topological change; double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining; extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors; inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus; innate immune response; male gonad development; negative regulation of DNA-templated transcription; negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors; negative regulation of gene expression; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; nucleosome assembly; positive chemotaxis; positive regulation of DNA binding; positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription; positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation; positive regulation of erythrocyte differentiation; positive regulation of innate immune response; positive regulation of interferon-beta production; positive regulation of megakaryocyte differentiation; positive regulation of nuclease activity; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; regulation of neurogenesis; regulation of stem cell proliferation; regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; response to lipopolysaccharide; response to steroid hormone; spermatid nucleus differentiation; V(D)J recombination
Reference #:  P26583 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: high mobility group box 2; High mobility group protein 2; High mobility group protein B2; high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein 2; high-mobility group box 2; HMG-2; HMG2; HMGB2
Gene Symbols: HMGB2
Molecular weight: 24,034 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 7.62  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  Reactome  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  GeneCards  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  NURSA  |  Ensembl Protein