Probable core component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III) which is involved in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) formation and sorting of endosomal cargo proteins into MVBs. MVBs contain intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that are generated by invagination and scission from the limiting membrane of the endosome and mostly are delivered to lysosomes enabling degradation of membrane proteins, such as stimulated growth factor receptors, lysosomal enzymes and lipids. The MVB pathway appears to require the sequential function of ESCRT-O, -I,-II and -III complexes. ESCRT-III proteins mostly dissociate from the invaginating membrane before the ILV is released. The ESCRT machinery also functions in topologically equivalent membrane fission events, such as the terminal stages of cytokinesis and the budding of enveloped viruses (HIV-1 and other lentiviruses). ESCRT-III proteins are believed to mediate the necessary vesicle extrusion and/or membrane fission activities, possibly in conjunction with the AAA ATPase VPS4. Selectively binds to phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate PtdIns(3,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4)P2 in preference to other phosphoinositides tested. Involved in late stages of cytokinesis. Plays a role in endosomal sorting/trafficking of EGF receptor. Isoform 2 prevents stress-mediated cell death and accumulation of reactive oxygen species when expressed in yeast cells. Belongs to the SNF7 family. Widely expressed. Expressed in heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. 4 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Cellular Component: cytoplasm; cytoplasmic vesicle; early endosome; endosome; ESCRT III complex; late endosome; membrane; midbody; multivesicular body; plasma membrane
Molecular Function: identical protein binding; phosphatidylcholine binding; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding; protein homodimerization activity; ubiquitin-specific protease binding
Biological Process: cell cycle; cell division; endosome to lysosome transport; endosome transport via multivesicular body sorting pathway; late endosome to vacuole transport; midbody abscission; multivesicular body-lysosome fusion; negative regulation of viral release from host cell; positive regulation of cytokinesis; positive regulation of viral release from host cell; protein heterooligomerization; protein polymerization; protein transport; regulation of centrosome duplication; regulation of early endosome to late endosome transport; regulation of endosome size; regulation of viral process; vacuolar transport; viral budding via host ESCRT complex