Mediates the nuclear export of cellular proteins (cargos) bearing a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) and of RNAs. In the nucleus, in association with RANBP3, binds cooperatively to the NES on its target protein and to the GTPase RAN in its active GTP-bound form (Ran-GTP). Docking of this complex to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated through binding to nucleoporins. Upon transit of a nuclear export complex into the cytoplasm, disassembling of the complex and hydrolysis of Ran-GTP to Ran-GDP (induced by RANBP1 and RANGAP1, respectively) cause release of the cargo from the export receptor. The directionality of nuclear export is thought to be conferred by an asymmetric distribution of the GTP- and GDP-bound forms of Ran between the cytoplasm and nucleus. Involved in U3 snoRNA transport from Cajal bodies to nucleoli. Binds to late precursor U3 snoRNA bearing a TMG cap. (Microbial infection) Mediates the export of unspliced or incompletely spliced RNAs out of the nucleus from different viruses including HIV-1, HTLV-1 and influenza A. Interacts with, and mediates the nuclear export of HIV-1 Rev and HTLV-1 Rex proteins. Involved in HTLV-1 Rex multimerization. Belongs to the exportin family. Expressed in heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, spleen, thymus, prostate, testis, ovary, small intestine, colon and peripheral blood leukocytes. Not expressed in the kidney. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Karyopherin; Nuclear export; Nuclear import; Nucleolus
Molecular Function: nuclear export signal receptor activity; protein binding; protein domain specific binding; Ran GTPase binding; RNA binding
Biological Process: intracellular transport of virus; mRNA transport; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; nucleocytoplasmic transport; protein export from nucleus; protein localization to nucleus; regulation of centrosome duplication; regulation of mRNA stability; regulation of protein catabolic process; response to drug; ribosomal large subunit export from nucleus; ribosomal small subunit export from nucleus; ribosomal subunit export from nucleus; ribosome biogenesis; viral process