Methylates CpG residues. Preferentially methylates hemimethylated DNA. Associates with DNA replication sites in S phase maintaining the methylation pattern in the newly synthesized strand, that is essential for epigenetic inheritance. Associates with chromatin during G2 and M phases to maintain DNA methylation independently of replication. It is responsible for maintaining methylation patterns established in development. DNA methylation is coordinated with methylation of histones. Mediates transcriptional repression by direct binding to HDAC2. In association with DNMT3B and via the recruitment of CTCFL/BORIS, involved in activation of BAG1 gene expression by modulating dimethylation of promoter histone H3 at H3K4 and H3K9. Probably forms a corepressor complex required for activated KRAS-mediated promoter hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) or other tumor-related genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Also required to maintain a transcriptionally repressive state of genes in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Associates at promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) leading to their gene silencing. Promotes tumor growth. Belongs to the class I-like SAM-binding methyltransferase superfamily. C5-methyltransferase family. Ubiquitous; highly expressed in fetal tissues, heart, kidney, placenta, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and expressed at lower levels in spleen, lung, brain, small intestine, colon, liver, and skeletal muscle. Isoform 2 is less expressed than isoform 1. 3 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Amino Acid Metabolism - cysteine and methionine; Cell development/differentiation; EC 22.214.171.124; Methyltransferase; Methyltransferase, DNA; Transcription regulation
Molecular Function: DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase activity; DNA binding; DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; DNA-methyltransferase activity; methyl-CpG binding; promoter-specific chromatin binding; protein binding; RNA binding; zinc ion binding
Biological Process: C-5 methylation of cytosine; cellular response to amino acid stimulus; chromatin organization; DNA methylation; DNA methylation involved in embryo development; gene silencing; maintenance of DNA methylation; negative regulation of gene expression; negative regulation of gene expression, epigenetic; negative regulation of histone H3-K9 methylation; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell apoptotic process; negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation involved in phenotypic switching; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation; positive regulation of methylation-dependent chromatin silencing; positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation; Ras protein signal transduction
Alt. Names/Synonyms: AIM; CXXC finger protein 9; CXXC-type zinc finger protein 9; CXXC9; DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1; DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1; DNA methyltransferase 1; DNA methyltransferase HsaI; DNA MTase HsaI; DNMT; DNMT1; FLJ16293; M.HsaI; MCMT; MGC104992