GSK3A Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC and AXIN1. Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates. Contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis. Regulates glycogen metabolism in liver, but not in muscle. May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors. In Wnt signaling, regulates the level and transcriptional activity of nuclear CTNNB1/beta-catenin. Facilitates amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and the generation of APP-derived amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer disease. May be involved in the regulation of replication in pancreatic beta-cells. Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth. Through phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1, may control cell apoptosis in response to growth factors deprivation. Acts as a regulator of autophagy by mediating phosphorylation of KAT5/TIP60 under starvation conditions, leading to activate KAT5/TIP60 acetyltransferase activity and promote acetylation of key autophagy regulators, such as ULK1 and RUBCNL/Pacer. Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GSK-3 subfamily. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: CMGC group; EC; EC; GSK family; GSK subfamily; Kinase, protein; Protein kinase, CMGC; Protein kinase, Ser/Thr (non-receptor)
Chromosomal Location of human Ortholog: 19q13.2
Cellular Component:  apical dendrite; axon; beta-catenin destruction complex; cytoplasm; cytosol; mitochondrion; neuronal cell body; nucleus; postsynapse; proximal dendrite
Molecular Function:  ATP binding; protein binding; protein kinase A catalytic subunit binding; protein serine kinase activity; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; signaling receptor binding; tau protein binding; tau-protein kinase activity
Biological Process:  cardiac left ventricle morphogenesis; cell migration; cellular response to glucocorticoid stimulus; cellular response to insulin stimulus; cellular response to interleukin-3; cellular response to lithium ion; dopamine receptor signaling pathway; excitatory postsynaptic potential; extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway; extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand; glycogen metabolic process; insulin receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway; negative regulation of cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development; negative regulation of gene expression via CpG island methylation; negative regulation of glucose import; negative regulation of glycogen (starch) synthase activity; negative regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; negative regulation of glycogen synthase activity, transferring glucose-1-phosphate; negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of TOR signaling; negative regulation of type B pancreatic cell development; negative regulation of UDP-glucose catabolic process; nervous system development; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation; positive regulation of adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of amyloid-beta formation; positive regulation of autophagy; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of glycogen (starch) synthase activity; positive regulation of heart contraction; positive regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation; positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process; positive regulation of protein catabolic process; positive regulation of protein targeting to mitochondrion; positive regulation of protein ubiquitination; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process; protein phosphorylation; regulation of autophagy of mitochondrion; regulation of gene expression by genomic imprinting; regulation of neuron projection development; regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure; viral protein processing; Wnt signaling pathway
Reference #:  P49840 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: DKFZp686D0638; glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha; Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha; GSK-3 alpha; GSK3A; GSK3alpha; Serine/threonine-protein kinase GSK3A
Gene Symbols: GSK3A
Molecular weight: 50,981 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 8.95  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Adherens Junction Dynamics  |  Alzheimer's Disease  |  B Cell Receptor Signaling  |  ErbB/HER Signaling  |  ESC Pluripotency and Differentiation  |  Growth And Differentiation Control by MAPKs  |  Inhibition of Apoptosis  |  Insulin Receptor Signaling  |  mTOR Signaling  |  PI3K/Akt Signaling  |  Translation: eIF4E and p70S6K  |  Wnt/ß-Catenin Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  Reactome  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  KinBase  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho3D  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  GeneCards  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  Ensembl Protein