Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for the cytokine KITLG/SCF and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, hematopoiesis, stem cell maintenance, gametogenesis, mast cell development, migration and function, and in melanogenesis. In response to KITLG/SCF binding, KIT can activate several signaling pathways. Phosphorylates PIK3R1, PLCG1, SH2B2/APS and CBL. Activates the AKT1 signaling pathway by phosphorylation of PIK3R1, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Activated KIT also transmits signals via GRB2 and activation of RAS, RAF1 and the MAP kinases MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1. Promotes activation of STAT family members STAT1, STAT3, STAT5A and STAT5B. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. KIT signaling is modulated by protein phosphatases, and by rapid internalization and degradation of the receptor. Activated KIT promotes phosphorylation of the protein phosphatases PTPN6/SHP-1 and PTPRU, and of the transcription factors STAT1, STAT3, STAT5A and STAT5B. Promotes phosphorylation of PIK3R1, CBL, CRK (isoform Crk-II), LYN, MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1, PLCG1, SRC and SHC1. Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. CSF-1/PDGF receptor subfamily. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are detected in spermatogonia and Leydig cells. Isoform 3 is detected in round spermatids, elongating spermatids and spermatozoa (at protein level). Widely expressed. Detected in the hematopoietic system, the gastrointestinal system, in melanocytes and in germ cells. 3 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC 18.104.22.168; Kinase, protein; Membrane protein, integral; Oncoprotein; PDGFR family; Protein kinase, TK; Protein kinase, tyrosine (receptor); TK group
Cellular Component: acrosomal vesicle; cell-cell junction; cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane; external side of plasma membrane; extracellular space; mast cell granule; plasma membrane
Molecular Function: ATP binding; cytokine binding; metal ion binding; protease binding; protein binding; protein homodimerization activity; protein tyrosine kinase activity; SH2 domain binding; stem cell factor receptor activity; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity
Biological Process: actin cytoskeleton reorganization; activation of MAPK activity; cell chemotaxis; cellular response to thyroid hormone stimulus; cytokine-mediated signaling pathway; dendritic cell cytokine production; detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of sound; digestive tract development; ectopic germ cell programmed cell death; embryonic hemopoiesis; epithelial cell proliferation; erythrocyte differentiation; erythropoietin-mediated signaling pathway; Fc receptor signaling pathway; germ cell migration; glycosphingolipid metabolic process; hematopoietic stem cell migration; hemopoiesis; immature B cell differentiation; inflammatory response; Kit signaling pathway; lamellipodium assembly; lymphoid progenitor cell differentiation; male gonad development; MAPK cascade; mast cell chemotaxis; mast cell cytokine production; mast cell degranulation; mast cell differentiation; mast cell proliferation; megakaryocyte development; melanocyte adhesion; melanocyte differentiation; melanocyte migration; myeloid progenitor cell differentiation; negative regulation of programmed cell death; ovarian follicle development; peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; pigmentation; positive regulation of colon smooth muscle contraction; positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade; positive regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity; positive regulation of MAPK cascade; positive regulation of Notch signaling pathway; positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity; positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling; positive regulation of phospholipase C activity; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling; positive regulation of pseudopodium assembly; positive regulation of pyloric antrum smooth muscle contraction; positive regulation of small intestine smooth muscle contraction; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein; positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation; protein autophosphorylation; regulation of bile acid metabolic process; regulation of cell proliferation; regulation of cell shape; regulation of developmental pigmentation; regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; response to cadmium ion; signal transduction; somatic stem cell division; somatic stem cell population maintenance; spermatid development; spermatogenesis; stem cell differentiation; stem cell population maintenance; T cell differentiation; tongue development; visual learning