ENPP2 Hydrolyzes lysophospholipids to produce the signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in extracellular fluids. Major substrate is lysophosphatidylcholine. Also can act on sphingosylphosphorylcholine producing sphingosine-1-phosphate, a modulator of cell motility. Can hydrolyze, in vitro, bis-pNPP, to some extent pNP-TMP, and barely ATP. Involved in several motility-related processes such as angiogenesis and neurite outgrowth. Acts as an angiogenic factor by stimulating migration of smooth muscle cells and microtubule formation. Stimulates migration of melanoma cells, probably via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. May have a role in induction of parturition. Possible involvement in cell proliferation and adipose tissue development. Tumor cell motility-stimulating factor. Belongs to the nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family. Detected in blood plasma (at protein level) (PubMed:12176993, PubMed:26371182). Predominantly expressed in brain, placenta, ovary, and small intestine. Expressed in a number of carcinomas such as hepatocellular and prostate carcinoma, neuroblastoma and non-small-cell lung cancer. Expressed in body fluids such as plasma, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), saliva, follicular and amniotic fluids. Not detected in leukocytes. Isoform 1 is more highly expressed in peripheral tissues than in the central nervous system (CNS). Adipocytes only express isoform 1. Isoform 3 is more highly expressed in the brain than in peripheral tissues. 3 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC; Lipid Metabolism - ether lipid; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Phosphodiesterase; Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Chromosomal Location of mouse Ortholog: 15|15 D1
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; extracellular region; extracellular space; Golgi apparatus; integral component of plasma membrane
Molecular Function:  alkylglycerophosphoethanolamine phosphodiesterase activity; calcium ion binding; catalytic activity; hydrolase activity; lysophospholipase activity; metal ion binding; nucleic acid binding; nucleotide diphosphatase activity; phosphodiesterase I activity; polysaccharide binding; scavenger receptor activity; zinc ion binding
Biological Process:  cell chemotaxis; chemotaxis; estrous cycle; immune response; lipid catabolic process; lipid metabolic process; negative regulation of cell-matrix adhesion; phosphatidylcholine catabolic process; phospholipid catabolic process; phospholipid metabolic process; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of epithelial cell migration; positive regulation of focal adhesion assembly; positive regulation of lamellipodium morphogenesis; positive regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading; regulation of angiogenesis; regulation of cell migration
Reference #:  Q9R1E6 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ATX; Auto; Autotaxin; E-NPP 2; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2; Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2; Enpp2; Extracellular lysophospholipase D; LysoPLD; Npps2; PD-; PD-Ialpha; Pdnp2; phosphodiesterase I/nucleotide pyrophosphatase 2
Gene Symbols: Enpp2
Molecular weight: 98,885 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 6.96  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Select Structure to View Below


Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene