NFkB-p65 a subunit of NF-kappa-B transcription complex, which plays a crucial role in inflammatory and immune responses. The inhibitory effect of I-kappa-B upon NF-kappa-B in the cytoplasm is exerted primarily through the interaction with p65. P65 shows a weak DNA-binding site which could contribute directly to DNA binding in the NF-kappa-B complex. There are five NFkB proteins in mammals (RelA/NFkB-p65, RelB, c-Rel, NF-_B1/NFkB-p105, and NF-_B2/NFkB-p100). They form a variety of homodimers and heterodimers, each of which activates its own characteristic set of genes. Three splice-variant isoforms have been identified. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA-binding; Nuclear receptor co-regulator; Transcription factor
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 1q43
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; cytosol; glutamatergic synapse; NF-kappaB p50/p65 complex; nuclear chromatin; nucleoplasm; nucleus; protein-containing complex; synapse; transcription factor complex
Molecular Function:  actinin binding; activating transcription factor binding; ankyrin repeat binding; chromatin binding; chromatin DNA binding; DNA binding; DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; DNA-binding transcription factor activity; DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; enzyme binding; histone deacetylase binding; identical protein binding; NF-kappaB binding; phosphate ion binding; protein binding; protein heterodimerization activity; protein homodimerization activity; protein kinase binding; protein N-terminus binding; protein-containing complex binding; repressing transcription factor binding; RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding; RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding; RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding; RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator binding; sequence-specific DNA binding; transcription factor binding; transcription regulatory region DNA binding; ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Biological Process:  acetaldehyde metabolic process; aging; animal organ morphogenesis; cellular response to angiotensin; cellular response to hepatocyte growth factor stimulus; cellular response to hydrogen peroxide; cellular response to interleukin-1; cellular response to interleukin-6; cellular response to lipopolysaccharide; cellular response to lipoteichoic acid; cellular response to nicotine; cellular response to peptidoglycan; cellular response to tumor necrosis factor; cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus; chromatin organization; cytokine-mediated signaling pathway; defense response; hair follicle development; I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling; inflammatory response; liver development; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway; negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; negative regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; negative regulation of protein sumoylation; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 signaling pathway; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiation; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling; positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process; positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell; positive regulation of miRNA metabolic process; positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity; positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of Schwann cell differentiation; positive regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in cellular response to chemical stimulus; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; postsynapse to nucleus signaling pathway; pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; regulation of DNA-templated transcription in response to stress; regulation of inflammatory response; regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; response to amino acid; response to bacterium; response to cAMP; response to cobalamin; response to cytokine; response to drug; response to hydrogen peroxide; response to inorganic substance; response to insulin; response to interleukin-1; response to lipopolysaccharide; response to mechanical stimulus; response to morphine; response to muramyl dipeptide; response to muscle stretch; response to organic cyclic compound; response to organic substance; response to progesterone; response to UV-B; transcription, DNA-templated; tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway
Reference #:  Q7TQN4 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: NFkB; nuclear factor kappa B subunit p65; RELA; v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A; V-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (Avian)
Gene Symbols: Rela
Molecular weight: 60,267 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.52  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Apoptosis Regulation  |  B Cell Receptor Signaling  |  Death Receptor Signaling  |  Inhibition of Apoptosis  |  NF-kB Signaling  |  Regulation of P38 MAPKs  |  T Cell Receptor Signaling  |  Toll-Like Receptor Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  NURSA  |  Ensembl Protein