CX3CL1 Acts as a ligand for both CX3CR1 and integrins. Binds to CX3CR1. Binds to integrins ITGAV:ITGB3 and ITGA4:ITGB1. Can activate integrins in both a CX3CR1-dependent and CX3CR1-independent manner. In the presence of CX3CR1, activates integrins by binding to the classical ligand-binding site (site 1) in integrins. In the absence of CX3CR1, binds to a second site (site 2) in integrins which is distinct from site 1 and enhances the binding of other integrin ligands to site 1. The soluble form is chemotactic for T-cells and monocytes and not for neutrophils. The membrane-bound form promotes adhesion of those leukocytes to endothelial cells. May play a role in regulating leukocyte adhesion and migration processes at the endothelium. Belongs to the intercrine delta family. Expressed in the seminal plasma, endometrial fluid and follicular fluid (at protein level). Small intestine, colon, testis, prostate, heart, brain, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. Most abundant in the brain and heart. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Chemokine; Membrane protein, integral; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis
Chromosomal Location of human Ortholog: 16q21
Cellular Component:  cell projection; cell surface; extracellular region; extracellular space; membrane; neuron projection; neuronal cell body; perinuclear region of cytoplasm; plasma membrane
Molecular Function:  CCR chemokine receptor binding; chemoattractant activity; chemokine activity; CX3C chemokine receptor binding; CXCR1 chemokine receptor binding; integrin binding; protein binding; signaling receptor binding
Biological Process:  aging; angiogenesis involved in wound healing; autocrine signaling; cell adhesion; cell chemotaxis; cell-cell adhesion; cell-cell signaling; cellular response to interleukin-1; cellular response to tumor necrosis factor; cellular response to type II interferon; chemokine-mediated signaling pathway; chemotaxis; cytokine-mediated signaling pathway; defense response; eosinophil chemotaxis; extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand; G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; immune response; inflammatory response; integrin activation; leukocyte adhesive activation; leukocyte chemotaxis; leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response; lymphocyte chemotaxis; microglial cell activation; microglial cell proliferation; monocyte chemotaxis; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway; negative regulation of cell migration; negative regulation of cell-substrate adhesion; negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand; negative regulation of glutamate receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of hippocampal neuron apoptotic process; negative regulation of interleukin-1 alpha production; negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production; negative regulation of interleukin-6 production; negative regulation of microglial cell activation; negative regulation of neuron migration; negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production; neuron cellular homeostasis; neuron remodeling; neutrophil chemotaxis; positive chemotaxis; positive regulation of actin filament bundle assembly; positive regulation of calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion; positive regulation of cell population proliferation; positive regulation of cell-matrix adhesion; positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; positive regulation of GTPase activity; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling; positive regulation of I-kappaB phosphorylation; positive regulation of inflammatory response; positive regulation of MAPK cascade; positive regulation of microglial cell migration; positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation; positive regulation of neuron projection development; positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling; positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta1 production; regulation of lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway; regulation of neurogenesis; regulation of synaptic plasticity; response to ischemia; synapse pruning
Reference #:  P78423 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ABCD-3; C-X3-C motif chemokine 1; C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1; C3Xkine; chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1; CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine; CX3CL1; CXC3; CXC3C; FKN; Fractalkine; Neurotactin; NTN; NTT; Processed fractalkine; SCYD1; small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member 1 (fractalkine, neurotactin); small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member-1; Small-inducible cytokine D1; X3CL1
Gene Symbols: CX3CL1
Molecular weight: 42,203 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 6.08  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Select Structure to View Below


Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  Reactome  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  Phospho3D  |  Phospho.ELM  |  GeneCards  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene