G-protein-coupled receptor that senses changes in the extracellular concentration of calcium ions and plays a key role in maintaining calcium homeostasis. Senses fluctuations in the circulating calcium concentration and modulates the production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in parathyroid glands. The activity of this receptor is mediated by a G-protein that activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The G-protein-coupled receptor activity is activated by a co-agonist mechanism: aromatic amino acids, such as Trp or Phe, act concertedly with divalent cations, such as calcium or magnesium, to achieve full receptor activation. Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family. Expressed in the temporal lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Also found in kidney, lung, liver, heart, skeletal muscle, placenta. 2 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: GPCR, family 3; Membrane protein, integral; Membrane protein, multi-pass; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Receptor, GPCR
Molecular Function: amino acid binding; calcium ion binding; G protein-coupled receptor activity; identical protein binding; integrin binding; metal ion binding; protein homodimerization activity; protein kinase binding; transmembrane transporter binding
Biological Process: adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; bile acid secretion; branching morphogenesis of an epithelial tube; calcium ion import; cellular calcium ion homeostasis; chloride transmembrane transport; detection of calcium ion; G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; JNK cascade; ossification; phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of ATP-dependent activity; positive regulation of calcium ion import; positive regulation of cell population proliferation; positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of insulin secretion; positive regulation of positive chemotaxis; positive regulation of vasoconstriction; regulation of calcium ion transport; signal transduction; vasodilation
Alt. Names/Synonyms: calcium-sensing receptor; CaR; CaSR; cation sensing receptor; Extracellular calcium-sensing receptor; G protein coupled receptor, family C, group 2, member A; G protein-coupled receptor, family C, group 2, member A; Gpr; Gprc2a; Parathyroid cell calcium-sensing receptor; PCaR1