a receptor tyrosine kinase. This is a receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and related growth factors including TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, GP30, and vaccinia virus growth factor. EGFR is involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation. It is a single-pass transmembrane tyrosine kinase. Ligand binding to this receptor results in receptor dimerization, autophosphorylation (in trans), activation of various downstream signaling molecules and lysosomal degradation. It can be phosphorylated and activated by Src. Activated EGFR binds the SH2 domain of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma), activating PLC-gamma-mediated downstream signaling. Phosphorylated EGFR binds Cbl, leading to its ubiquitination and degradation. Grb2 and SHC bind to phospho-EGFR and are involved in the activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Phosphorylation on Ser and Thr residues is thought to represent a mechanism for attenuation of EGFR kinase activity. EGFR is overexpressed in breast, head and neck cancers, correlating with poor survival. Activating somatic mutations are seen in lung cancer, corresponding to the minority of patients with strong responses to the EGFR inhibitor Iressa (gefitinib). Mutations and amplifications are also seen in glioblastoma, and upregulation is seen in colon cancer and neoplasms. In xenografts, inhibitors synergize with cytotoxic drugs in the inhibition of many tumor types. Inhibitors include: Iressa/ZD1839, Erbitux, Tarceva, and lapatinib. Four alternatively spliced isoforms have been described. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC 220.127.116.11; Kinase, protein; Membrane protein, integral; Oncoprotein; Protein kinase, TK; Protein kinase, tyrosine (receptor)
Molecular Function: actin filament binding; ATP binding; calmodulin binding; chromatin binding; double-stranded DNA binding; enzyme binding; epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity; identical protein binding; integrin binding; MAP kinase kinase kinase activity; protein binding; protein heterodimerization activity; protein kinase binding; protein phosphatase binding; protein tyrosine kinase activity; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity; transmembrane signaling receptor activity; ubiquitin protein ligase binding; virus receptor activity
Biological Process: activation of MAPKK activity; activation of phospholipase A2 activity by calcium-mediated signaling; activation of phospholipase C activity; astrocyte activation; cell proliferation; cell surface receptor signaling pathway; cell-cell adhesion; cellular response to amino acid stimulus; cellular response to cadmium ion; cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus; cellular response to epidermal growth factor stimulus; cellular response to estradiol stimulus; cellular response to mechanical stimulus; cellular response to reactive oxygen species; cerebral cortex cell migration; circadian rhythm; digestive tract morphogenesis; diterpenoid metabolic process; embryonic placenta development; epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway; ERBB2 signaling pathway; eyelid development in camera-type eye; hair follicle development; hydrogen peroxide metabolic process; learning or memory; liver regeneration; lung development; magnesium ion homeostasis; MAPK cascade; membrane organization; midgut development; morphogenesis of an epithelial fold; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of cardiocyte differentiation; negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of ERBB signaling pathway; negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle; negative regulation of Notch signaling pathway; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; neuron projection morphogenesis; ossification; ovulation cycle; peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation; peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of blood vessel diameter; positive regulation of bone resorption; positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway; positive regulation of cell growth; positive regulation of cell migration; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity; positive regulation of DNA repair; positive regulation of DNA replication; positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation; positive regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle; positive regulation of inflammatory response; positive regulation of MAP kinase activity; positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; positive regulation of nitric oxide mediated signal transduction; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of phosphorylation; positive regulation of production of miRNAs involved in gene silencing by miRNA; positive regulation of prolactin secretion; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling; positive regulation of protein kinase C activity; positive regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane; positive regulation of protein phosphorylation; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of superoxide anion generation; positive regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; positive regulation of vasoconstriction; protein autophosphorylation; protein insertion into membrane; regulation of cell motility; regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; regulation of JNK cascade; regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity; regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling; regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; response to calcium ion; response to cobalamin; response to hydroxyisoflavone; response to osmotic stress; response to UV-A; salivary gland morphogenesis; signal transduction; tongue development; translation; viral entry into host cell; wound healing