ATG3 E2 conjugating enzyme required for the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt), autophagy, and mitochondrial homeostasis. Responsible for the E2-like covalent binding of phosphatidylethanolamine to the C-terminal Gly of ATG8-like proteins (GABARAP, GABARAPL1, GABARAPL2 or MAP1LC3A). The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate plays a role of an E3 and promotes the transfer of ATG8-like proteins from ATG3 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). This step is required for the membrane association of ATG8-like proteins. The formation of the ATG8-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugates is essential for autophagy and for the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt). Preferred substrate is MAP1LC3A. Also acts as an autocatalytic E2-like enzyme, catalyzing the conjugation of ATG12 to itself, ATG12 conjugation to ATG3 playing a role in mitochondrial homeostasis but not in autophagy. ATG7 (E1-like enzyme) facilitates this reaction by forming an E1-E2 complex with ATG3. Promotes primary ciliogenesis by removing OFD1 from centriolar satellites via the autophagic pathway. Belongs to the ATG3 family. Widely expressed, with a highest expression in heart, skeletal muscle, kidney, liver and placenta. 2 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Autophagy; EC 6.3.2.-; Ubiquitin conjugating system
Chromosomal Location of mouse Ortholog: 16|16 B5
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; cytoplasmic ubiquitin ligase complex; cytosol; phagophore assembly site
Molecular Function:  Atg12 transferase activity; Atg8-family ligase activity; enzyme binding; protein binding; transferase activity; ubiquitin-like protein transferase activity
Biological Process:  autophagosome assembly; autophagy; autophagy of mitochondrion; macroautophagy; mitochondrial fragmentation involved in apoptotic process; negative regulation of phagocytosis; nucleophagy; protein modification process; protein transport; protein ubiquitination; regulation of cilium assembly
Reference #:  Q9CPX6 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: 2610016C12Rik; APG3; APG3 autophagy 3-like; APG3-like; Apg3l; Atg3; Atg3l; autophagy Apg3p/Aut1p-like; autophagy related 3; autophagy-related 3 (yeast); autophagy-related 3-like; Autophagy-related protein 3; OTTMUSP00000030762; PC3-9; PC3-96; Ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG3
Gene Symbols: Atg3
Molecular weight: 35,796 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 4.63  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Autophagy Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  Ensembl Protein