ARHGEF2 Activates Rho-GTPases by promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP. May be involved in epithelial barrier permeability, cell motility and polarization, dendritic spine morphology, antigen presentation, leukemic cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, innate immune response, and cancer. Binds Rac-GTPases, but does not seem to promote nucleotide exchange activity toward Rac-GTPases, which was uniquely reported in PubMed:9857026. May stimulate instead the cortical activity of Rac. Inactive toward CDC42, TC10, or Ras-GTPases. Forms an intracellular sensing system along with NOD1 for the detection of microbial effectors during cell invasion by pathogens. Required for RHOA and RIP2 dependent NF-kappaB signaling pathways activation upon S.flexneri cell invasion. Involved not only in sensing peptidoglycan (PGN)-derived muropeptides through NOD1 that is independent of its GEF activity, but also in the activation of NF-kappaB by Shigella effector proteins (IpgB2 and OspB) which requires its GEF activity and the activation of RhoA. Involved in innate immune signaling transduction pathway promoting cytokine IL6/interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha secretion in macrophage upon stimulation by bacterial peptidoglycans; acts as a signaling intermediate between NOD2 receptor and RIPK2 kinase. Contributes to the tyrosine phosphorylation of RIPK2 through Src tyrosine kinase leading to NF-kappaB activation by NOD2. Overexpression activates Rho-, but not Rac-GTPases, and increases paracellular permeability. Involved in neuronal progenitor cell division and differentiation. Involved in the migration of precerebellar neurons. 3 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: GEF; GEF, Rac/Rho; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 1q22
Cellular Component:  bicellular tight junction; cytoplasm; cytoplasmic vesicle; cytoskeleton; cytosol; dendritic shaft; glutamatergic synapse; Golgi apparatus; microtubule; neuronal cell body; podosome; postsynaptic density, intracellular component; protein-containing complex; ruffle membrane; spindle; vesicle
Molecular Function:  microtubule binding; protein binding; Rac GTPase binding; Rac guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity; Rho GTPase binding; Rho guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity; transcription factor binding; zinc ion binding
Biological Process:  actin filament organization; asymmetric neuroblast division; cell morphogenesis; cellular hyperosmotic response; cellular response to muramyl dipeptide; cellular response to tumor necrosis factor; establishment of mitotic spindle orientation; G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; innate immune response; intracellular protein transport; intracellular signal transduction; negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors; negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to osmotic stress; negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization; negative regulation of necroptotic process; negative regulation of neurogenesis; negative regulation of podosome assembly; positive regulation of apoptotic process; positive regulation of interleukin-6 production; positive regulation of neuron differentiation; positive regulation of neuron migration; positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production; regulation of cell proliferation; regulation of Rho protein signal transduction; regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction
Disease: Neurodevelopmental Disorder With Midbrain And Hindbrain Malformations
Reference #:  Q92974 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ARHG2; ARHGEF2; DKFZp547L106; DKFZp547P1516; FLJ45440; GEF; GEF-H1; GEFH1; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor H1; KIAA0651; Lfc; LFP40; Microtubule-regulated Rho-GEF; NEDMHM; P40; Proliferating cell nucleolar antigen p40; Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2; Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2; Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2; RhoGEF2
Gene Symbols: ARHGEF2
Molecular weight: 111,543 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 6.89  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Actin Dynamics  |  Microtubule Dynamics
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  Reactome  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  Ensembl Protein