PAK1 Protein kinase involved in intracellular signaling pathways downstream of integrins and receptor-type kinases that plays an important role in cytoskeleton dynamics, in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, mitosis, and in vesicle-mediated transport processes. Can directly phosphorylate BAD and protects cells against apoptosis. Activated by interaction with CDC42 and RAC1. Functions as GTPase effector that links the Rho-related GTPases CDC42 and RAC1 to the JNK MAP kinase pathway. Phosphorylates and activates MAP2K1, and thereby mediates activation of downstream MAP kinases. Involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, actin stress fibers and of focal adhesion complexes. Phosphorylates the tubulin chaperone TBCB and thereby plays a role in the regulation of microtubule biogenesis and organization of the tubulin cytoskeleton. Plays a role in the regulation of insulin secretion in response to elevated glucose levels. Part of a ternary complex that contains PAK1, DVL1 and MUSK that is important for MUSK-dependent regulation of AChR clustering during the formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Activity is inhibited in cells undergoing apoptosis, potentially due to binding of CDC2L1 and CDC2L2. Phosphorylates MYL9/MLC2. Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-338' and 'Ser-339' resulting in: activation of RAF1, stimulation of RAF1 translocation to mitochondria, phosphorylation of BAD by RAF1, and RAF1 binding to BCL2. Phosphorylates SNAI1 at 'Ser-246' promoting its transcriptional repressor activity by increasing its accumulation in the nucleus. In podocytes, promotes NR3C2 nuclear localization. Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin (CFL1) and for the up-regulation of ACKR2 from endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. In synapses, seems to mediate the regulation of F-actin cluster formation performed by SHANK3, maybe through CFL1 phosphorylation and inactivation. Plays a role in RUFY3-mediated facilitating gastric cancer cells migration and invasion. In response to DNA damage, phosphorylates MORC2 which activates its ATPase activity and facilitates chromatin remodeling. Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. STE20 subfamily. Overexpressed in gastric cancer cells and tissues (at protein level) (PubMed:25766321). 2 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC; Kinase, protein; PAKA subfamily; Protein kinase, STE; Protein kinase, Ser/Thr (non-receptor); STE group; STE20 family
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 1q32
Cellular Component:  actin filament; axon; cell-cell junction; chromosome; cytoplasm; cytosol; dendrite; focal adhesion; GABA-ergic synapse; glutamatergic synapse; growth cone; intercalated disc; invadopodium; lamellipodium; membrane; nuclear membrane; nucleoplasm; nucleus; plasma membrane; postsynaptic density; protein-containing complex; ruffle; ruffle membrane; Z disc
Molecular Function:  ATP binding; collagen binding; identical protein binding; MAP kinase kinase kinase activity; protein binding; protein kinase activity; protein kinase binding; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; Rac GTPase binding
Biological Process:  actin cytoskeleton reorganization; activation of MAPKK activity; activation of protein kinase activity; amygdala development; apoptotic process; branching morphogenesis of an epithelial tube; cell migration; cellular response to DNA damage stimulus; cellular response to insulin stimulus; cellular response to organic cyclic compound; cerebellum development; chromatin remodeling; dendrite development; dendritic spine development; establishment of cell polarity; exocytosis; gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion, neurotransmission; glutamate secretion, neurotransmission; hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathway; intracellular signal transduction; MAPK cascade; negative regulation of cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development; negative regulation of cell proliferation involved in contact inhibition; neuromuscular junction development; neuron projection morphogenesis; observational learning; positive regulation of axon extension; positive regulation of cell migration; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of fibroblast migration; positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of JUN kinase activity; positive regulation of microtubule polymerization; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein targeting to membrane; positive regulation of stress fiber assembly; positive regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration; positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation; protein autophosphorylation; protein phosphorylation; receptor clustering; regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization; regulation of axonogenesis; regulation of gene expression; regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation; regulation of MAPK cascade; response to hypoxia; response to organic substance; signal transduction by protein phosphorylation; small GTPase mediated signal transduction; stress-activated protein kinase signaling cascade; trans-synaptic signaling by endocannabinoid, modulating synaptic transmission; transmission of nerve impulse; wound healing
Reference #:  P35465 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: Alpha-PAK; p21 (CDKN1A)-activated kinase 1; p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1; p21-activated kinase 1; p21/Cdc42/Rac1-activated kinase 1 (yeast Ste20-related); p68-PAK; PAK-1; Pak1; Protein kinase MUK2; Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1
Gene Symbols: Pak1
Molecular weight: 60,578 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.63  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Actin Dynamics  |  ErbB/HER Signaling  |  Growth And Differentiation Control by MAPKs  |  Microtubule Dynamics  |  TGF-ß Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho3D  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene