ATR Serine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light (UV), or DNA replication stalling, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates BRCA1, CHEK1, MCM2, RAD17, RPA2, SMC1 and p53/TP53, which collectively inhibit DNA replication and mitosis and promote DNA repair, recombination and apoptosis. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX at sites of DNA damage, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Required for FANCD2 ubiquitination. Critical for maintenance of fragile site stability and efficient regulation of centrosome duplication. Belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. ATM subfamily. Ubiquitous, with highest expression in testis. Isoform 2 is found in pancreas, placenta and liver but not in heart, testis and ovary. 3 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: ATR subfamily; ATYPICAL group; EC; Kinase, lipid; Kinase, protein; Membrane protein, integral; PIKK family; Protein kinase, Ser/Thr (non-receptor); Protein kinase, atypical
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 9|9 E3.3
Cellular Component:  chromosome; Golgi apparatus; nucleoplasm; nucleus; PML body; XY body
Molecular Function:  ATP binding; DNA binding; kinase activity; MutLalpha complex binding; MutSalpha complex binding; nucleotide binding; protein binding; protein kinase activity; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; transferase activity
Biological Process:  cellular response to DNA damage stimulus; cellular response to gamma radiation; cellular response to UV; chromosome organization; DNA damage checkpoint; DNA repair; embryo implantation; establishment of RNA localization to telomere; negative regulation of DNA replication; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; phosphorylation; positive regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator; positive regulation of telomerase catalytic core complex assembly; positive regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase; protein autophosphorylation; protein localization to chromosome, telomeric region; protein phosphorylation; regulation of protein binding; replicative senescence; telomere maintenance
Reference #:  Q9JKK8 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related; Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein; Atr; Kiaa4069; Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR
Gene Symbols: Atr
Molecular weight: 300,224 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 7.38  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Apoptosis Regulation  |  G1/S Checkpoint  |  G2/M DNA Damage Checkpoint  |  Mitochondrial Control of Apoptosis
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  KinBase  |  Pfam  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene