DYRK3 Dual-specificity protein kinase that promotes disassembly of several types of membraneless organelles during mitosis, such as stress granules, nuclear speckles and pericentriolar material. Dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinases (DYRKs) autophosphorylate a critical tyrosine residue in their activation loop and phosphorylate their substrate on serine and threonine residues. Acts as a central dissolvase of membraneless organelles during the G2-to-M transition, after the nuclear-envelope breakdown: acts by mediating phosphorylation of multiple serine and threonine residues in unstructured domains of proteins, such as SRRM1 and PCM1. Does not mediate disassembly of all membraneless organelles: disassembly of P-body and nucleolus is not regulated by DYRK3. Dissolution of membraneless organelles at the onset of mitosis is also required to release mitotic regulators, such as ZNF207, from liquid-unmixed organelles where they are sequestered and keep them dissolved during mitosis. Regulates mTORC1 by mediating the dissolution of stress granules: during stressful conditions, DYRK3 partitions from the cytosol to the stress granule, together with mTORC1 components, which prevents mTORC1 signaling. When stress signals are gone, the kinase activity of DYRK3 is required for the dissolution of stress granule and mTORC1 relocation to the cytosol: acts by mediating the phosphorylation of the mTORC1 inhibitor AKT1S1, allowing full reactivation of mTORC1 signaling. Also acts as a negative regulator of EPO-dependent erythropoiesis: may place an upper limit on red cell production during stress erythropoiesis. Inhibits cell death due to cytokine withdrawal in hematopoietic progenitor cells. Promotes cell survival upon genotoxic stress through phosphorylation of SIRT1: this in turn inhibits p53/TP53 activity and apoptosis. Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MNB/DYRK subfamily. Isoform 1: Highly expressed in testis and in hematopoietic tissue such as fetal liver, and bone marrow (PubMed:10779429). Isoform 1: Predominant form in fetal liver and bone marrow (PubMed:10779429). Isoform 1: Present at low levels in heart, pancreas, lymph node and thymus (PubMed:10779429). Isoform 2: Highly expressed in testis and in hematopoietic tissue such as fetal liver, and bone marrow (PubMed:10779429). Isoform 2: Predominant form in testis. Isoform 2: Present at low levels in heart, pancreas, lymph node and thymus (PubMed:10779429). 2 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: CMGC group; DYRK family; Dyrk2 subfamily; EC; Kinase, protein; Protein kinase, CMGC; Protein kinase, dual-specificity (non-receptor)
Chromosomal Location of rat Ortholog: 13q13
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; cytoplasmic stress granule; cytoskeleton; cytosol; intracellular membrane-bounded organelle; nuclear speck; nucleoplasm; nucleus; pericentriolar material
Molecular Function:  ATP binding; magnesium ion binding; protein kinase activity; protein serine kinase activity; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity; protein tyrosine kinase activity
Biological Process:  cell division; erythrocyte differentiation; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator; nuclear speck organization; organelle disassembly; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation; peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of cell cycle G2/M phase transition; protein phosphorylation; regulation of cellular response to stress; regulation of TORC1 signaling; stress granule disassembly
Reference #:  Q4V8A3 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 3; dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 3; Dyrk3
Gene Symbols: Dyrk3
Molecular weight: 65,511 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 9.58  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Select Structure to View Below


Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene