AXL Receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding growth factor GAS6 and which is thus regulating many physiological processes including cell survival, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Ligand binding at the cell surface induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of AXL. Following activation by ligand, ALX binds and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PI3-kinase subunits PIK3R1, PIK3R2 and PIK3R3; but also GRB2, PLCG1, LCK and PTPN11. Other downstream substrate candidates for AXL are CBL, NCK2, SOCS1 and TNS2. Recruitment of GRB2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase regulatory subunits by AXL leads to the downstream activation of the AKT kinase. GAS6/AXL signaling plays a role in various processes such as endothelial cell survival during acidification by preventing apoptosis, optimal cytokine signaling during human natural killer cell development, hepatic regeneration, gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron survival and migration, platelet activation, or regulation of thrombotic responses. Plays also an important role in inhibition of Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated innate immune response. (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for lassa virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope. (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for Ebolavirus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope. Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. AXL/UFO subfamily. Highly expressed in metastatic colon tumors. Expressed in primary colon tumors. Weakly expressed in normal colon tissue. 2 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Axl family; EC; Kinase, protein; Membrane protein, integral; Oncoprotein; Protein kinase, TK; Protein kinase, tyrosine (receptor); TK group
Chromosomal Location of human Ortholog: 19q13.2
Cellular Component:  actin cytoskeleton; cell surface; extracellular space; intracellular membrane-bounded organelle; plasma membrane; receptor complex
Molecular Function:  ATP binding; myosin heavy chain binding; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding; phosphatidylserine binding; protein binding; protein tyrosine kinase activity; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity; virus receptor activity
Biological Process:  animal organ regeneration; blood vessel remodeling; cell maturation; cell migration; cellular response to extracellular stimulus; cellular response to hydrogen peroxide; cellular response to interferon-alpha; cellular response to lipopolysaccharide; dendritic cell differentiation; erythrocyte homeostasis; establishment of localization in cell; forebrain cell migration; inflammatory response; innate immune response; multicellular organism development; natural killer cell differentiation; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of dendritic cell apoptotic process; negative regulation of lymphocyte activation; negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production; negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process; negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production; negative regulation of type II interferon production; nervous system development; neuron apoptotic process; neuron migration; neutrophil clearance; ovulation cycle; peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; phagocytosis; platelet activation; positive regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling pathway; positive regulation of kinase activity; positive regulation of natural killer cell differentiation; positive regulation of pinocytosis; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling; positive regulation of viral life cycle; protein kinase B signaling; response to axon injury; secretion by cell; signal transduction; spermatogenesis; substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway; vagina development; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway; viral entry into host cell
Disease: Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 7 With Or Without Anosmia
Reference #:  P30530 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ARK; AXL; AXL oncogene; AXL receptor tyrosine kinase; AXL transforming sequence/gene; JTK11; oncogene AXL; Tyro7; Tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO; UFO
Gene Symbols: AXL
Molecular weight: 98,336 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.27  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Tyrosine Kinases & Substrates
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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