CXCL10 Pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in a wide variety of processes such as chemotaxis, differentiation, and activation of peripheral immune cells, regulation of cell growth, apoptosis and modulation of angiostatic effects. Plays thereby an important role during viral infections by stimulating the activation and migration of immune cells to the infected sites. Mechanistically, binding of CXCL10 to the CXCR3 receptor activates G protein-mediated signaling and results in downstream activation of phospholipase C-dependent pathway, an increase in intracellular calcium production and actin reorganization. In turn, recruitment of activated Th1 lymphocytes occurs at sites of inflammation. Activation of the CXCL10/CXCR3 axis plays also an important role in neurons in response to brain injury for activating microglia, the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system, and directing them to the lesion site. This recruitment is an essential element for neuronal reorganization. Belongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family. Mainly secreted by monocytes, endothelial cells as well as fibroblasts. Expressed by epithelial cells in thymus (PubMed:11157474). Microglial cells produce CXCL10 in response to viral stimulation (PubMed:12663757). Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Chemokine; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Chromosomal Location of human Ortholog: 4q21.1
Cellular Component:  external side of plasma membrane; extracellular region
Molecular Function:  cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity; chemoattractant activity; chemokine activity; CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding; heparin binding; protein binding; signaling receptor binding
Biological Process:  adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; blood circulation; cell surface receptor signaling pathway; cell-cell signaling; cellular response to heat; cellular response to lipopolysaccharide; chemokine-mediated signaling pathway; chemotaxis; cytokine-mediated signaling pathway; defense response to virus; endothelial cell activation; G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; muscle organ development; negative regulation of angiogenesis; negative regulation of myoblast differentiation; negative regulation of myoblast fusion; positive chemotaxis; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis; positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol; positive regulation of T cell migration; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; regulation of apoptotic process; regulation of cell proliferation; regulation of endothelial tube morphogenesis; regulation of protein kinase activity; regulation of signaling receptor activity; regulation of T cell chemotaxis; response to auditory stimulus; response to cold; response to gamma radiation; response to vitamin D; signal transduction; T cell chemotaxis
Reference #:  P02778 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: 10 kDa interferon gamma-induced protein; C-X-C motif chemokine 10; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10; C7; chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10; crg-2; CXCL10; CXCL10(1-73); CXL10; gamma IP10; Gamma-IP10; gIP-10; IFI10; INP10; interferon-inducible cytokine IP-10; IP-10; IP10; mob-1; protein 10 from interferon (gamma)-induced cell line; SCYB10; small inducible cytokine subfamily B (Cys-X-Cys), member 10; Small-inducible cytokine B10
Gene Symbols: CXCL10
Molecular weight: 10,881 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 9.93  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  Reactome  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  Phospho3D  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene