TYR This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the initial and rate limiting step in the cascade of reactions leading to melanin production from tyrosine. In addition to hydroxylating tyrosine to DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), also catalyzes the oxidation of DOPA to DOPA-quinone, and possibly the oxidation of DHI (5,6-dihydroxyindole) to indole-5,6 quinone. Belongs to the tyrosinase family. 2 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Amino Acid Metabolism - tyrosine; Cofactor and Vitamin Metabolism - riboflavin; EC; Membrane protein, integral; Oxidoreductase
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 11q14.3
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; cytosol; Golgi-associated vesicle; integral component of membrane; intracellular membrane-bounded organelle; lysosome; melanosome; melanosome membrane; nucleus; perinuclear region of cytoplasm
Molecular Function:  copper ion binding; monophenol monooxygenase activity; protein binding; protein heterodimerization activity; protein homodimerization activity
Biological Process:  cell proliferation; eye pigment biosynthetic process; melanin biosynthetic process; melanin biosynthetic process from tyrosine; oxidation-reduction process; response to cAMP; response to UV; response to vitamin D; thymus development; visual perception
Disease: Albinism, Oculocutaneous, Type Ia; Albinism, Oculocutaneous, Type Ib; Skin/hair/eye Pigmentation, Variation In, 3
Reference #:  P14679 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ATN; CMM8; LB24-AB; Monophenol monooxygenase; OCA1; OCA1A; OCAIA; oculocutaneous albinism IA; SHEP3; SK29-AB; Tumor rejection antigen AB; TYR; TYRO; Tyrosinase; tyrosinase (oculocutaneous albinism IA)
Gene Symbols: TYR
Molecular weight: 60,393 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.71  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Select Structure to View Below


Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene