RAC1 Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as secretory processes, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, epithelial cell polarization, neurons adhesion, migration and differentiation, and growth-factor induced formation of membrane ruffles. Rac1 p21/rho GDI heterodimer is the active component of the cytosolic factor sigma 1, which is involved in stimulation of the NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. Stimulates PKN2 kinase activity. In concert with RAB7A, plays a role in regulating the formation of RBs (ruffled borders) in osteoclasts. In podocytes, promotes nuclear shuttling of NR3C2; this modulation is required for a proper kidney functioning. Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced LIMK1-PAK1-dependent phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1) and for up-regulation of ACKR2 from endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. In neurons, is involved in dendritic spine formation and synaptic plasticity. In synapses, seems to mediate the regulation of F-actin cluster formation performed by SHANK3. Isoform B has an accelerated GEF-independent GDP/GTP exchange and an impaired GTP hydrolysis, which is restored partially by GTPase-activating proteins. It is able to bind to the GTPase-binding domain of PAK but not full-length PAK in a GTP-dependent manner, suggesting that the insertion does not completely abolish effector interaction. Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family. Isoform B is predominantly identified in skin and epithelial tissues from the intestinal tract. Its expression is elevated in colorectal tumors at various stages of neoplastic progression, as compared to their respective adjacent tissues. 1 alternatively spliced human isoform has been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: G protein; G protein, monomeric; G protein, monomeric, Rho; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 5 G2|5 82.22 cM
Cellular Component:  cell projection; cytoplasm; cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule; cytoplasmic vesicle; cytosol; dendritic spine; early endosome membrane; extrinsic component of plasma membrane; glutamatergic synapse; Golgi membrane; kinocilium; lamellipodium; membrane; nucleus; pericentriolar material; phagocytic cup; plasma membrane; postsynapse; recycling endosome membrane; ruffle membrane; trans-Golgi network
Molecular Function:  ATPase binding; enzyme binding; GTP binding; GTP-dependent protein binding; GTPase activity; histone deacetylase binding; nucleotide binding; protein binding; protein kinase binding; protein-containing complex binding; Rab GTPase binding; Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor binding; thioesterase binding
Biological Process:  actin cytoskeleton organization; actin filament organization; actin filament polymerization; anatomical structure arrangement; auditory receptor cell morphogenesis; axon guidance; bone resorption; cell adhesion; cell migration; cell motility; cell projection assembly; cell proliferation; cell-cell junction organization; cellular response to mechanical stimulus; cerebral cortex GABAergic interneuron development; cerebral cortex radially oriented cell migration; chemotaxis; cochlea morphogenesis; cytoskeleton organization; dendrite development; dendrite morphogenesis; dopaminergic neuron differentiation; embryonic olfactory bulb interneuron precursor migration; endocytosis; engulfment of apoptotic cell; epithelial cell morphogenesis; forebrain development; G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathway; homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue; hyperosmotic response; lamellipodium assembly; localization within membrane; mast cell chemotaxis; midbrain dopaminergic neuron differentiation; motor neuron axon guidance; negative regulation of interleukin-23 production; neuron migration; neuron projection morphogenesis; non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway; phagocytosis, engulfment; positive regulation of actin filament polymerization; positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion; positive regulation of dendritic spine development; positive regulation of DNA replication; positive regulation of focal adhesion assembly; positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus; positive regulation of lamellipodium assembly; positive regulation of microtubule polymerization; positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis; positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity; positive regulation of protein phosphorylation; positive regulation of stress fiber assembly; positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading; protein localization to plasma membrane; Rac protein signal transduction; regulation of cell migration; regulation of cell morphogenesis; regulation of cell size; regulation of fibroblast migration; regulation of lamellipodium assembly; regulation of neuron maturation; regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity; regulation of neutrophil migration; regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; regulation of respiratory burst; regulation of stress fiber assembly; Rho protein signal transduction; ruffle assembly; ruffle organization; semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway; small GTPase mediated signal transduction; substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading; synaptic transmission, GABAergic; Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway
Reference #:  P63001 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: AL023026; D5Ertd559e; OTTMUSP00000022620; p21-Rac1; Rac1; RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 1; Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1
Gene Symbols: Rac1
Molecular weight: 21,450 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 8.77  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Actin Dynamics  |  Adherens Junction Dynamics  |  B Cell Receptor Signaling  |  ErbB/HER Signaling  |  Growth And Differentiation Control by MAPKs  |  Microtubule Dynamics  |  SAPK/JNK Signaling Cascades  |  T Cell Receptor Signaling  |  TGF-ß Signaling  |  Wnt/ß-Catenin Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  GeneCards  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene