NFkB-p65 a subunit of NF-kappa-B transcription complex (NFkB), which plays a crucial role in biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NFkB consists of homo- or heterodimeric complexes formed from the five NFkB proteins in mammals: RelA, RelB, c-REL, NFkB1, and NFkB2. They form a variety of homodimers and heterodimers, each binding at kappa-B sites in the DNA, regulating distinct sets of genes. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors. For example,RELA-NFkB1 and RELA-REL complexes function as transcriptional activators. NFkB complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state complexed with IkB proteins. When IkB is phosphorylated by IkB kinases (IKKs), it is degraded, allowing active NFkB complexes to translocate to the nucleus. Essential for cytokine gene expression in T-cells. RELA-RELA complexes appear to be involved in invasin-mediated activation of IL-8 expression. Four alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA-binding; Nuclear receptor co-regulator; Transcription factor
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 19 A|19 4.34 cM
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; cytosol; glutamatergic synapse; NF-kappaB complex; NF-kappaB p50/p65 complex; nuclear chromatin; nucleoplasm; nucleus; protein-containing complex; synapse; transcription factor complex
Molecular Function:  actinin binding; activating transcription factor binding; ankyrin repeat binding; chromatin binding; chromatin DNA binding; DNA binding; DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; DNA-binding transcription factor activity; DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; enzyme binding; histone deacetylase binding; identical protein binding; NF-kappaB binding; phosphate ion binding; protein binding; protein heterodimerization activity; protein homodimerization activity; protein kinase binding; protein N-terminus binding; protein-containing complex binding; repressing transcription factor binding; RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding; RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding; RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding; RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator binding; sequence-specific DNA binding; transcription factor binding; transcription regulatory region DNA binding; ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Biological Process:  animal organ morphogenesis; cellular response to angiotensin; cellular response to hepatocyte growth factor stimulus; cellular response to hydrogen peroxide; cellular response to interleukin-1; cellular response to interleukin-6; cellular response to lipopolysaccharide; cellular response to lipoteichoic acid; cellular response to nicotine; cellular response to peptidoglycan; cellular response to tumor necrosis factor; cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus; chromatin organization; cytokine-mediated signaling pathway; defense response; hair follicle development; I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling; inflammatory response; liver development; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway; negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; negative regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; negative regulation of protein sumoylation; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 signaling pathway; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiation; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling; positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process; positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell; positive regulation of miRNA metabolic process; positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity; positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of Schwann cell differentiation; positive regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in cellular response to chemical stimulus; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; postsynapse to nucleus signaling pathway; pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; regulation of DNA-templated transcription in response to stress; regulation of inflammatory response; regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; response to bacterium; response to cytokine; response to interleukin-1; response to muramyl dipeptide; response to muscle stretch; response to organic substance; response to UV-B; transcription, DNA-templated; tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway
Reference #:  Q04207 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: avian reticuloendotheliosis viral (v-rel) oncogene homolog A; NFkB-p65; Nfkb3; Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p65 subunit; Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 3; OTTMUSP00000017977; p65; p65 NF kappaB; p65 NF-kappa B; p65 NFkB; Rela; TF65; Transcription factor p65; v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (avian)
Gene Symbols: Rela
Molecular weight: 60,212 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.5  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Apoptosis Regulation  |  B Cell Receptor Signaling  |  Death Receptor Signaling  |  Inhibition of Apoptosis  |  NF-kB Signaling  |  Regulation of P38 MAPKs  |  T Cell Receptor Signaling  |  Toll-Like Receptor Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  Phospho3D  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene  |  NURSA